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Abstract  

Large columns containing aluminum oxide (Al2O3) or gel (e.g. zirconium molybdate) are needed to prepare 98Mo(n,γ)99Mo→99mTc column chromatographic generators that results in large elution volumes containing relatively high 99Mo impurity and low concentrations of 99mTc. The decrease in radioactive concentration or specific volume concentration of 99mTc places a limitation on some pharmaceutical kits (DTPA, MIBI, ECD, etc.) or clinical procedures. We report on the post elution concentration of 99mTc using in house prepared lead cation-exchange and alumina columns. Using these columns high bolus volumes (10–60 mL 0.02M sodium sulfate) of 99mTc can conveniently be concentrated in 1 mL of physiological saline. This approach also works very effectively to prepare high specific volume solutions of 99mTc-pertechnetate from a fission based 99Mo/99mTc generator in the second week of its normal working life.

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Abstract  

Production of Copper-64 (64Cu) by irradiating copper and zinc metals in a reactor was evaluated. Low specific activity 64Cu can be easily produced using thermal neutrons via 63Cu (n,γ) 64Cu reaction, while use of fast neutrons are mandatory for high specific activity 64Cu via 64Zn (n,p) 64Cu reaction. Natural copper and zinc targets were irradiated in Pakistan Research Reactor-1. Radionuclidic impurities produced by thermal and fast neutrons were determined. Commonly available organic anion exchange resin (AG 1-X8) was used for the separation of no-carrier-added radiocopper from neutron irradiated zinc. More than 95% 64,67Cu was recovered. The radionuclidic and chemical purity of 64Cu was determined. The specific activity of 64Cu produced by 63Cu (n,γ) and 64Zn (n,p) was compared.

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Abstract  

Production of radioactive scandium by irradiating natural titanium metal in Pakistan Research Reactor-1 was evaluated. The production rate of 47Sc and other radioactive scandium was estimated. High specific activity 47Sc can be produced by irradiating enriched 47Ti in sufficient quantities needed for therapeutic applications. A new separation technique based on column chromatography was developed. Neutron irradiated titanium was dissolved in hydrofluoric acid, which was evaporated and taken in distilled water. The resulting solution was loaded on silica gel column. The radioactive scandium comes out first and the inactive titanium is removed with 2 M HCl. More than 95% radioactive scandium was recovered, while chemical impurity of titanium determined by optical emission spectroscopy was less than 0.01 μg/mL in final product.

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Abstract  

An investigation on the level of some minor and trace elements in some varieties of meat (beef, mutton and chicken) consumed in Bangladesh is reported. In this study, protoninduced X-ray emission (PIXE) and radioisotope-induced X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques were used for analytical measurements. In PIXE measurements, the samples were exposed to the proton beam in air as 1 mm thick pellets and irradiated with 2.0 MeV protons having the beam intensity of 30 nA for characteristic X-ray excitation, whereas in XRF, the samples were excited for 5000 seconds with a 10 mCi109Cd annular X-ray source. The elemental concentrations of Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb and Sr were determined in the samples by comparison with X-ray yield curves constructed from IAEA and NBS standard reference materials. The significance of the results is dicussed in relation to human health and diseases.

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Abstract  

Neutron capture gamma-ray activation analysis technique has been used for the non-destructive analysis of Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn and B in stainless steel and iron ore samples. It has been shown that the use of low energy capture gamma-rays, ranging from 0.2 to 1.4 MeV, helps considerably in reducing the time of analysis. The problem of congestion of peaks due to compton continuum and the double and single escape peaks in this region of the spectrum has been overcome by using a Ge(Li) detector in conjunction with a 15.25 cm thick bifurcated NaI(Tl) annulus in anticompton mode. The results obtained by this technique have been compared with those of the chemical analysis.

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Abstract  

The proton particle induced X-ray emission (proton PIXE) technique has been employed to study the heavy element status (essential and toxic) in five different varieties of pulses commonly cultivated and consumed in Bangladesh. In this analysis, the samples were irradiated in air with 2 MeV protons having 30 nA beam intensity for characteristic X-ray excitation. For 40 C irradiations, the concentration of ten elements (K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, and Rb) was determined by comparison with a calibration obtained from the NBS orchard leaf standard, SRM 1571. In a comparative study with atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) measurements of some elements in lathyrus sativus, the data were found to be in good agreement. The results obtained from the present study are discussed and compared with available data.

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Abstract  

The problem of spectrochemical analysis of elements in solutions has been investigated for a number of elements across the periodic table using radioisotope-induced energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence method. In this study a low intensity109Cd X-ray source was used for characteristic X-ray excitation. Experimental parameters such as saturation thickness and critical thickness have been studied to evaluate their role in this method. Minimum detection limits, sensitivities and the nature of concentration calibration at critical thickness have been obtained as a function of Z to find the limits of the method. Results obtained have been discussed in the light of theories and potential areas of applicability of the method have been indicated.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: M.Z. Islam, M.A. Siddique, N. Akter, M.F.R.K. Prince, M.R. Islam, M. Anisuzzaman, and M.A.K. Mian

Genetic diversity of 28 restorer lines of rice was studied under irrigated condition through Mahalanobis D2 statistics and simple sequence repeat (SSR) banding patterns. The cluster analysis grouped the lines into five clusters. The principal component analysis showed that the first four components with vector values > 1 contributed 76.32% of the total variations. The intra- and inter-cluster distances were the maximum in cluster V (0.86) and between clusters II and V (15.14), respectively. Flag leaf area, plant height, panicle length, five panicle weight, primary branches per panicle and secondary branches per panicle had maximum contribution towards genetic divergence. A total of 24 alleles varied from 2 to 5 with an average of 2.67 alleles per locus were detected for the nine microsatellite markers across 28 lines. The polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.12 to 0.71 with an average of 0.29. RM229 was considered as the best markers on the basis of the highest PIC value. Phylogenetic cluster analysis of the SSR data based on distance divided all lines into three groups (A, B and C), whereas the cluster analysis divided these lines into five groups (I, II, III, IV and V). Besides, evaluation of yield contributing traits demonstrated that the restorer lines under the current study possessed a considerable genetic diversity. Potential lines such as BU1IR, China2R, China1R, BHD3R, IR509R and Heera5R can be used as pollen parent in developing new commercial hybrid varieties. Therefore, potential restorer lines need to be conserved in Genebank for future hybrid rice breeding programs.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: M. Raman, N. Molla, A. Sharif, S. Basunia, S. Islam, R. Miah, S. Hossain, M. Chowdhury, A. Bhuiyan, and P. Stegnar
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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: A. Khan, S. Tarafdar, M. Ali, S. Biswas, S. Akhter, D. Saha, A. Islam, M. Billah, D. Hadi, and F. Maroof

Abstract  

An investigation is conducted on the status of trace and minor elements in some foodstuffs (cereals, vegetables, milk, egg and fish), commonly consumed in Bangladesh, using proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and radioisotope-induced X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques. In PIXE measurements, the samples were irradiated in air with 2.0 MeV (energy on the target) protons having the beam intensity of 30 nA for characteristic X-ray excitation, while in XRF analysis, the samples were excited for 5000 seconds with a 10 mCi Cd-109 annular X-ray source. The elemental concentration of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, and Pb were determined in the samples by comparison with X-ray yield curves constructed from IAEA and NBS standard reference materials. The validity of the analytical procedures (PIXE and XRF) followed in this study has been confirmed by comparative measurements of Cu, Zn and Mn in some varieties of rice with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results indicate that none of the food regimes investigated here is burdened with heavy metals beyond permissible limits except five species of vegetables with chromium having the range of 0.99–3.59 mg/kg compared to the literature value of 0.0–0.36 mg/kg (dry weight basis). An average value of 0.2 mg/kg of arsenic was observed both in IRRI (n=16) and local Aman (n=12) varieties of rice and only one hen egg contained 1.7 mg/kg of lead in yolk. The zinc content in some marine fish from Bay of Bengal was reported to be 5.4–19.5 mg/kg, whereas in the present study of sweet-water fish, the level is found to be 15.2–62.1 mg/kg (fresh weight basis) for five species. In human milk, both Cu (0.12–0.25 mg/l, n=8) and Zn (0.28–1.80 mg/l, n=8) levels appear to be almost half the literature values (n=25). On the other hand formula milk has higher values of Cu (0.32–1.63 mg/kg, n=16) and Zn (5.16–19.8 mg/kg, n=16).

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