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Abstract  

Natural radioactivity in various types of marbles available in Rawalpindi/Islamabad industrial area have been assessed using HP(Ge) gamma-ray spectrometer. The concentration of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th ranges from 6.15 to 159.65 Bq.kg-1, 1.45 to 29.34 Bq.kg-1 and 1.16 to 6.28 Bq.kg-1, respectively. The radium equivalent activity lies between 5.56 to 33.42 Bq.kg-1. The average external and internal indices have been found to be 0.03 and 0.05, respectively. The average absorbed dose rate at 1 m was found to be 6.53 nGy.h-1. The estimated annual effective dose rate for whole body was found to be 0.04 mSv.y-1. These values are smaller than those predicted by UNSCEAR for normal background areas. The marbles analyzed pose less health hazard as compared to Pakistani baked bricks and other construction materials.

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Abstract  

Sn-alanine kits were prepared in lyophilized form containing 7.02·10–2 M -alanine and 5.5·10–4M stannous chloride dihydrate. The optimal pH value of the preparation was found to be equal to 4.3–5.1. The radiochemical purity and the stability of99mTc-alanine were assessed by gel filtration column scanning techniques (GCS) and thin layer chromatography, and the labelling yield of the complex was higher than 95%. The organ distribution data in mice showed that more than 90% of the injected dose had been accumulated in the liver. However, a negligible amount of radioactivity was detected in the non-target organs. The stability of99mTc-alanine was followed for 5 hours and the Sn-alanine kit was stable for at least 3 months.

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Abstract  

A study on the concentration of natural and fallout radionuclides in environmental samples collected from different localities of Islamabad was performed. For the determination of gamma-emitters such as 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs high purity germanium (HPGe) detector was used while for the analysis of 90Sr, a beta-emitter, liquid scintillation counting system was used. The indoor absorbed dose rate was measured by a CaF2 : Dy thermoluminescence detector. Other radiation parameters were also determined to evaluate the radiation hazard. All the results were well within the permissible limits showing that there is no radiation hazard in the environment of Islamabad.

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Abstract  

Specific activity of natural radionuclides; 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were measured in the agricultural soil of eastern salt range of Pakistan using gamma ray spectrometry. The soil samples were collected within the ploughing region (up to 12 cm depth) and processed before analysis. The average specific activities of different radionuclides in the dry mass of soil samples were: 40K, (666 Bq/kg), 226Ra (51 Bq/kg), and 232Th (59 Bq/kg). The average outdoor terrestrial absorbed dose rate in air from gamma radiation one meter above ground surface was found to be 93 nGy/h.

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Abstract  

Soil samples were collected from different localities of districts Jhelum, Chakwal, Rawalpindi and Attock, Punjab Province, Pakistan with an aim to measure naturally occurring radionuclides, namely 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and fallout 137Cs radionuclide using a P-type coaxial high purity germanium (HPGe) γ-ray spectrometer. Measured specific activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in these soil samples ranged from 26.02 ± 7.11 to 93.54 ± 8.13 Bq kg−1, 29.34 ± 2.58 to 114.41 ± 2.80 Bq kg−1 and 348.15 ± 3.20 to 752.98 ± 4.20 Bq kg−1, respectively. Activity due to 137Cs was observed in some locations which ranged from 0.4 ± 0.2 to 7.8 ± 0.3 Bq kg−1. From the measured activity concentrations, radium equivalent activity concentrations were determined followed by calculations of mean absorbed dose rate and mean annual effective dose for the inhabitants of the studied area. The mean radium equivalent activity, internal and external hazard indices values came out to be 179.26 ± 11.93 Bq kg−1, 0.64 ± 0.05 and 0.48 ± 0.03, respectively. Indoors and outdoor average annual effective dose values were found to be 0.42 ± 0.03 and 0.10 ± 0.01 mSv, respectively. Present data have been compared with the published data for other parts of the world and found to be safe for public and environment.

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International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Authors:
Ammar Al-Jodah
,
Saad Jabbar Abbas
,
Alaq F. Hasan
,
Amjad J. Humaidi
,
Abdulkareem Sh. Mahdi Al-Obaidi
,
Arif A. AL-Qassar
, and
Raaed F. Hassan

Abstract

The demand for automation using mobile robots has been increased dramatically in the last decade. Nowadays, mobile robots are used for various applications that are not attainable to humans. Omnidirectional mobile robots are one particular type of these mobile robots, which has been the center of attention for their maneuverability and ability to track complex trajectories with ease, unlike their differential type counterparts. However, one of the disadvantages of these robots is their complex dynamical model, which poses several challenges to their control approach. In this work, the modeling of a four-wheeled omnidirectional mobile robot is developed. Moreover, an intelligent Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) neural network control methodology is developed for trajectory tracking tasks, and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is utilized to find optimized controller's weights. The simulation study is conducted using Simulink and Matlab package, and the results confirmed the accuracy of the proposed intelligent control method to perform trajectory tracking tasks.

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