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  • Author or Editor: A. Kant x
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North West Himalaya Region of India faces serious shortage of green fodder up to 60 percent, particularly in winter months of November to March. Possibility of augmenting green fodder availability from cultivated lands, which is very limited (10% of geographical area) is explored by cultivation of dual purpose wheat, providing green fodder a part from grain production. Influence of wheat variation and their cutting schedule on fodder and grain yield were studied. Selected wheat varieties included VL Gehun 829, VL Gehun 616 and advance lines of VL 818 and VL 840, respectively. Significantly higher green fodder yield (69.32 q/ha) was obtained from VL 818 than under VL Gehun 616 and VL Gehun 829, while it was at per with fodder yield of VL 840. Cutting of green fodder scheduled at 70 and 85 DAS resulted no significant difference in yield. However, it showed the possibility of extended availability of green fodder without affecting the production the grain and straw yield obtained under VL Gehun 829 (60.05 q and 121.5 q/ha, respectively) were statistically superior to VL Gehun 616 and VL 818 and at par with VL 840. Harvest of green fodder affected grain yield of wheat up to 7% through it was not statistically significant. Therefore, it can be concluded that among the different cultivar VL Gehun 829 and VL 840 are the most suitable for dual purpose and can be cut after 70 and 85 DAS for green fodder as both stage of cut produced at par green fodder, grain and straw yields, thereby ensuring fodder and food security in the region.

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Deltamethrin, a well-known type 2 synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, is a widespread environmental toxicant. It has potential to accumulate in body fluids and tissues due to its lipophilic characteristics. The immune system is among the most sensitive targets regarding toxicity of environmental pollutants. Various methods are available in the literature to analyze deltamethrin (DLM) concentration in plasma and tissues, but regarding the immune organs, only one gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (GC–MS/MS) method (on spleen tissues) has been reported. In the present investigation, a rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed and validated to determine DLM concentration in plasma, thymus, and spleen using zaleplone as an internal standard. Liquid chromatography (LC) separation is performed on an Agilent Zorbax® C8 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, i.d., 5 μm) with isocratic elution using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile–5 mM KH2PO4 (70:30, v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL min−1. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for DLM is 10 ng mL−1 (plasma, thymus, and spleen). The method has been validated in terms of establishing linearity, specificity, sensitivity, recovery, accuracy, and precision (intra- and inter-day) and stabilities study. This validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution study of DLM in mice.

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The pathogenesis of chicken infectious anaemia virus (CAV) infection was studied in 6-week-old and one-day-old SPF chickens inoculated intramuscularly with graded doses of Cux-1 strain (106−102 TCID50/chicken). Viraemia, virus shedding, development of virus neutralizing (VN) antibodies and CAV distribution in the thymus were studied by virus isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunocytochemistry (IP) and in situ hybridization until postinfection day (PID) 28. In 6-week-old chickens infected with high doses of CAV, viraemia and VN antibodies could be detected 4 PID and onward without virus shedding or contact transmission to sentinel birds. However, virus shedding and contact transmission were demonstrated in one-day-old infected chickens. In the 6-weekold groups infected with lower doses, VN antibodies developed by PID 14, transient viraemia and virus shedding were detected. The thymus cortex of all 1-dayold inoculated chickens stained with VP3-specific mAb. Cells with positive in situ hybridization signal were fewer and scattered throughout the thymus tissue of the one-day-old inoculated chickens as compared to IP-positive cells. These results suggest that early immune response induced by high doses of CAV in 6-week-old chickens curtails viral replication and prevents virus shedding.

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The present paper reports that significant genetic variability was evident in Fe, Zn, β-carotene, and phytic acid (phytate, PA) contents in a set of 39 diverse maize genotypes collected from maize breeding programme of hill agriculture, India. The Fe, Zn, β-carotene, and PA concentrations were found to be in the range 19.31–50.64 mg kg−1, 12.60–37.18 mg kg−1, 0.17–8.27 µg g−1, and 6.59–7.13 g kg−1, respectively. The genotypes V335, V420, V393, V416, V414, V372, and V351 were identified to have higher concentration of β-carotene, Fe, and Zn but lower amount of PA. Possible availability of the minerals Fe and Zn was determined using molar ratio between PA as inhibitor and β-carotene as promoter for their absorption. The micronutrient molar ratio showed that Fe and Zn traits could be dependent of each other. Low R2 value revealed relation between β-carotene and kernel colour. The selected genotypes could be considered as potential sources of favourable genes for further breeding programs to develop micronutrient enriched maize cultivars.

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