DNA Comet Assay method was carried out to detect irradiation treatment of some foods like meat, spices, beans and lentils.
The fresh meat of cow and duck were irradiated up to radiation doses of 3 kGy, the spices (cardamoms and cumin black) were
irradiated to radiation doses of 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy while the beans (black beans and white beans) and lentils (red and green
lentils) were irradiated to 0.5 and 1 kGy. All the foods were then analyzed for radiation treatment using simple microgel
electrophoresis of single cells or nuclei (DNA Comet Assay). Sedimentation, lysis and staining times were adjusted to get
optimized conditions for correct and easy analysis of each food. Using these optimized conditions, it was found out that radiation
damaged DNA showed comets in case of irradiated food samples, whereas in non-treated food samples, round or conical spots
of stained DNA were visible. Shape, length and intensity of these comets were also radiation dose dependent. Screening of
unirradiated and irradiated samples by Comet Assay was successful in the case of all the foods under consideration under the
optimized conditions of assay. Therefore, for different kinds of irradiated foods studied in the present study, the DNA Comet
Assay can be used as a rapid, simple and inexpensive screening test.
A rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of thorium using 0.04% Arsenazo-III in a 2M perchloric acid solution. Absorbance was measured in 1 cm cell and the complex has a sensitive absorption peak at 654 nm. The complex is formed instantly in perchloric acid and remains stable for 45 minutes with constant absorbance. Beer's law is obeyed in the range 1–60 g·g–1 of thorium concentration with a molar absorptivity at 654 nm = 3.07·105 M–1·cm–1 at 24±2°C. The foreign ions interference in thorium determination have been checked. The cations were tested at >60-fold excess of thorium, Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II) and Ni(II) interfere negatively, whereas only Ce(III) has increased the absorbance. Among the anions, cyanide, phosphate, thiocyanate and acetate at 150-fold excess of thorium cause significant interference. However, thorium can bedetermined in the presence of nitrate, chloride, oxalate, tartrate, ascorbate, thiosulphate and citrate. The method has been applied on certified reference material for thorium determination after extractive separation and the result was found in good agreement with the certified value. The method has been also applied successfully to determine thorium at g·g–1 level in local ore samples with a precision of ±0.04%.
Radiosynthesis of 99mTc-sitafloxacin (99mTc-STF) complex and its efficacy as a potential infection imaging agent was evaluated. Effect of sitafloxacin (STF) concentration,
sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4), stannous chloride dihydrate (SnCl2·2H2O), and pH on the % radiochemical purity yield (RCP) of 99mTc-STF complex was studied. A stable 99mTc-STF complex up to 120 min with maximum %RCP yield was observed by mixing 2 mg of STF with 3 mCi of Na99mTcO4 and 150 μL of SnCl2·2H2O (1 μg/μL in 0.01 N HCl) at a pH 5.5. Artificially infected rats with Staphylococcus aureus were used for studying the biodistribution behavior of the 99mTc-STF complex. After 30 min of the intravenous (I.V.) administration of the 99mTc-STF complex, 7.50 ± 0.10% was absorbed in the infected thigh of the rats and the uptake gradually increased to 18.50 ± 0.20%
within 90 min. Rabbits with artificially induced infection were used for evaluating the scintigraphic accuracy. Higher uptake
in the infected thigh was observed after 2 h of I.V. administration of the 99mTc-STF complex. Target to non-target organ ratio of the % absorbed dose incase of infected/normal muscle was 6.82 ± 0.40,
17.11 ± 0.60, and 23.13 ± 1.00% at 30, 60 and 90 min of administration. Stable and higher %RCP, higher uptake in the infected
thigh, and spectral studies, recommend the 99mTc-STF for routine infection imaging.
Genomics provided biomedical scientists an inventory of all genes and sequences present in a living being. This provides an unique opportunity to the scientists to predict and study biological functions of these genes. The changes in the gene expression regulated by genomic sequences therefore reflect changes in the molecular processes working in a cell or tissue in response to external factors including exposure to toxic compounds and pathogens. Microarray offers a biotechnological revolution with the help of DNA chemistry, silicon chip technology and optics to be used to monitor gene expression for thousands of genes in one single experiment. Briefly, 20,000 to 100,000 unique DNA molecules get applied by a robot to the surface of silicon wafers (approximately the size of a microscope slide). Using a single microarray experiment, the expression level of 20,000 to 100,000 genes will be examined in one single experiment. Genomics and microarray have a significant role and impact on the design and development of modern detection and diagnostic tools in several different ways. Microarray tools are now used on regular basis for monitoring gene expression of large number of genes and also frequently applied to DNA sequence analysis, immunology, genotyping, and molecular diagnosing. For diagnostics, these tools can be used to distinguish and differentiate between different DNA fragments that differ by as little as a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). These microarrays can be divided based on the gene density spots that will be high density (≯10,000 spots) per slide, medium (<1000≯100) and low density (<100). High-density arrays have proven to be very useful in disease diagnosis especially in diagnosis and classification of different types of cancers. These microarray tools hold tremendous potential for pathogen detection, which will be comprised, of unique sets of genes (also referred to as “signatures”) able to unambiguously identify the species and strain of pathogens of interest.
Titan yellow has been adsorbed on a strongly basic anion-exchange resin. The effects of concentration, pH, time, and temperature on adsorption of the dye by the resin have been studied. The effects of surfactants on the distribution coefficients of metal ions were also studied. On the basis of distribution coefficients several binary separations of analytical importance (Zn(II) from Hg(II), Zn(II) from Pb(II), Cu(II) from Pb(II), Cd(II) from Pb(II), and Cu(II) from Hg(II) have been achieved on a column containing the Titan yellow-modified resin. Hg(II) and Pb(II) were selectively analysed in synthetic mixtures.
Effects of fly ash amendments in soil (0%, 25% and 50% vol/vol), Ralstonia solanacearum, Meloidogyne incognita and Phomopsis vexans were observed on the growth, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of eggplant. Addition of 25% fly ash in soil caused a significant increase in plant growth, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents over plants grown without fly ash. However, amendments of 50% fly ash in soil had an adverse effect on the growth, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of eggplant. Inoculation of the pathogens caused a significant reduction in growth, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Inoculation of R. solanacearum caused the greatest reduction followed by P. vexans and M. incognita. Root galling and nematode multiplication was reduced with the increase in fly ash. Wilting and blight indices were 3 in plants grown in 0% and 25% fly ash amended soil while 4 in 50% fly ash amended soil.