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  • Author or Editor: A. Kismányoky x
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The cultivation methods used in the experiments resulted in marked differences in the weediness of maize and wheat. The least weediness was found in the conventional tillage treatment. The crucial question in the conservation and no tillage for sustainable agriculture is the weed problem, especially if the technology of weed controls is unaltered as compare to the traditional one. The lower yield in this cultivation system can be attributed to the competition of weeds. To clarify the question, investigations were carried out in the years 2005–2008 in a long-term field experiment set up on brown forest soil at the University of Pannonia, Georgikon Faculty Keszthely. The lowest yields were obtained in the wheat–maize no-tillage system in comparison to the others. This was valid at high and low levels alike (good and unfavorable years). On the average of years the yield decrease was 10–15% as compared to the traditional cultivation. In the spring survey of the weed cover (%) in the wheat trials it was found that the weed coverage increased parallel with the N fertilizer amounts, and then declined in the treatment above 200 kg N. The relation of weeds v.s. N fertilizer is similar to the second power equation of the yield curve. In case of the maize trials, there were no significant differences between the N treatments (25–30%) regarding weed coverage. The gained results call attention to the fact that with the propagation of the reduced soil cultivation systems it is necessary to modify and harmonize the practice of weed control and fertilization. Instead of the schematic weed control and fertilization process, the application of scientifically well-established methods should be urged. In sustainable agriculture the data collection of weeds, the survey of dominant species, special herbicide combinations and the means of precision agriculture have to be taken into consideration.

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The effect of four NPK fertilizer rates (NPK[1:1:1]: 0, 300, 600, 900 kg active ingredients·ha -1 ) was studied on the growth of maize and on weed infestation - bio-mass production and nutrient uptake of weeds - in four replications in a 35-year old long-term maize continuous cropping field experiment (Keszthely, Hungary). The weed flora was recorded on 1 June, 2003 in the 6-8-leaf development stage of maize. The effect of the increasing rates of fertilizers was analyzed and evaluated from the results of biomass production as well as the nutrient uptake of weeds and maize, respectively. On the experimental plots 9 weed species were registered at the date of sampling, from which 4 species were perennial and 5 species were annual ones. All the weeds were collected from 1 m² areas of each plot and the different weed species were separated from each other. The fresh and dry weights of the canopy of maize and the different weed species were measured. The nutrient (NPK) contents of maize and weed samples were measured in the laboratory. Total and species scale nutrient concentration, as well as per-unit nutrient uptake of maize and weeds were compared. The increasing rates of mineral fertilizers had a significant effect on the biomass production and on the nutrient uptake of weeds. Significant differences were also found between the biomass production and nutrient uptake of the different weed species.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: P. Reisinger, É. Lehoczky, J. Mikulás, A. Kismányoky, P. Burai, G. Nador, G. Csornai, and J. Tamás
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