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  • Author or Editor: A. Lelbach x
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Ageing of the societies is a demographic phenomenon in the developed world. SARS-CoV-2 is a novel human coronavirus responsible for a pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). World Health Organization (WHO) data demonstrated that the first two waves of the pandemic had the most severe impact on older people and that is why new guidelines and protocols were necessary in geriatric medicine to protect senior citizens.

Materials and methods

In our publication, we summarise the three statements of EuGMS concerning the first and second waves of COVID-19 pandemic in Europe. Besides following the European recommendations, a proper local response was necessary in each country.


The Hungarian Government has successfully completed the necessary measures during the first two waves, which are summarised in our publication. Those measures took into consideration not only the international guidelines, but the capacities of the healthcare system, as well as the sociodemographic and economic characteristics of the country.


Successful local defence against COVID-19 required adequate and optimised interpretation of the international guidelines to save the life of thousands of older adults in Hungary.

Open access

Insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I/-II) are not only the endocrine mediators of growth hormone-induced metabolic and anabolic actions but also polypeptides that act in a paracrine and autocrine manner to regulate cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and transformation. The IGF system is a complex network comprised of two growth factors (IGF-I and -II), cell surface receptors (IGF-IR and -IIR), six specific high affinity binding proteins (IGFBP-1 to IGFBP-6), IGFBP proteases as well as several other IGFBP-interacting molecules, which regulate and propagate IGF actions in several tissues. Besides their broad-spectrum physiological and pathophysiological functions, recent evidence suggests even a link between IGFs and different malignancies.

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By now, there is no doubt that regular physical exercise has an overall beneficial effect on each organ of the body. However, the effects of highly competitive sports (HCS) are more complex, as they exert greater demands on the cardiovascular and metabolic systems, among others. Strength, athletic, and aesthetic sport types each has a different exercise intensity and nutritional loading, as well as a different prevalence of cardiometabolic diseases at a later age. HCS athletes experience hypertension and mental stress during competitions and high nutritional loads between them. The post-career effects of this behaviour on the heart, arteries, cellular metabolism, and risk of obesity, are not well known and are not often the focus of research. In this review, we aimed to summarize the post-career effects of HCS. Based on data in the literature, we propose that athletes involved in highly competitive strength sports progressively develop metabolic syndrome and sustained elevated blood pressure.

Open access