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The obtained results of the present study showed the good applicability of the van Genuchten equation for parameterizing NAPL retention data of soils (R2 = 0.99).Sufficient applicability of continuous PTFs for estimating the parameters of NAPL retention curves was found (R2 for α, n and θ s was 0.47, 0.84 and 0.86, respectively).The accuracy of parametric and point PTFs increased in case derived values of the independent variables in addition to the PSD (particle size distribution) fractions, bulk density, CaCO3 and organic matter content (R2 = 0.57–0.90 and RMSE = 2.43–5.67 vol%) were used, as compared to PTFs using only the original values of basic soil parameters as predictor variables (R2 = 0,48–0.86; RMSE = 3.56–6.83 vol%).According to the gained results, PTFs seem to be similarly accurate if the particle size distribution of soils — determined by different standard methods — are applied as independent variables.

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Alimentary factors of enterogen arthropathies were studied, in particular the early morphological detection, to prevent the disease progression by nutritional prescriptions. Authors compared the method of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with conventional X-ray and nuclear medicine investigations. The results showed the superiority of HRCT to detect cartilage erosions and ligamental calcifications in the sacroiliac joint and lumbar facet joint. The importance of nutritional factors is briefly discussed. The need for high quality and high quantity food of patients suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is well known. Elemental diet is effective for remission of IBD. Folic acid intake is extremely important. Total parenteral nutrition in acute active disease (Crohn's fistulas) has not been proved to effect IBD. Elimination of whole protein as a possible luminal factor for long term application can help, if elementary amino acids are in the diet. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (major components of fish oils) have beneficial effects. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet can decrease the inflammation. Antioxidants, glutamine are essential in the diet. Removal of fat is effective to get remission. Alimentary complication in IBD patients can be osteoporosis, so there is a need for regular bone densitometry. Conclusion of the study suggests that HRCT offers more sensitive detection of enterogen arthropathy related changes. The predictive value of this diagnostic method is accurate enough to advise restrictive and/or supplemental diets of IBD patients.  Dietary therapy allows circumvention of the adverse side-effects of repeated courses of steroids.

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The Hungarian Detailed Soil Hydrophysical Database, called MARTHA ver2.0 has been developed to collect information on measured soil hydraulic and physical characteristics in Hungary. Recently this is the largest detailed national hydrophysical database, containing controlled information from a total of 15,005 soil horizons. Two commonly used pedotransfer functions were tested to evaluate the accuracy of the predictions on the MARTHA data set, representative for Hungarian soils. In general, the application of both examined pedotransfer functions (Rajkai, 1988; Wösten et al., 1999) was not very successful, because these PTFs are representative for other soil groups. The classification tree method was used to evaluate the effect of soil structure on the goodness of estimations. It was found that using the soil structure data the inaccuracies of soil water retention predictions are more explainable and the structure may serve as a grouping variable for the development of class PTFs.

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According to the Hungarian Soil Information and Monitoring System's (HSIMS) database a group estimation method was developed to predict the mean soil hydrophysical properties. The estimation efficiency of the worked out prediction procedures was controlled on a test database, and on a dataset of a study area. It can be established that the water retention and the hydraulic conductivity of soils are sufficiently predictable from the category data of soil maps. The 10-digit map codes of the PWW mapping method were created by different estimation methods, and as a result the PWW map was drawn. However, it is not always possible to estimate the necessary soil hydrophysical properties from the available map information for preparing the PWW map. Sometimes the knowledge gained from the field reports is needed as well. Further studies are planned for integrating these morphological information into our estimations.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: T. Tóth, T. Németh, A. Bidló, F. Dér, M. Fekete, T. Fábián, Z. Gaál, B. Heil, T. Hermann, E. Horváth, G. Kovács, A. Makó, F. Máté, K. Mészáros, Z. Patocskai, F. Speiser, I. Szűcs, G. Tóth, Gy. Várallyay, J. Vass, and Sz. Vinogradov
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