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  • Author or Editor: A. Mendoza x
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Abstract  

This work examines the influence of sodium montmorillonite on the chemical transformations undergone by two nucleosides (cytidine and adenosine) in simulated primitive Earth conditions. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis of a protective role of solid surfaces like clay for organic compounds adsorbed on them, when exposed to external sources of ionizing radiation (γ-ray). The results showed this role of protection: the decomposition of nucleosides was lower when adsorbed on a clay mineral. It was also found that a purinic nucleoside (more than pirimidinic) was quickly adsorbed on clay at low pH and desorbed in neutral or lightly basic aqueous solutions. For analysis of samples, different techniques were used: X-ray diffraction, UV–Vis spectroscopy, and HPLC.

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Abstract  

This research addresses itself to the study of the mechanism of the acetic acid decarboxylation in Na-Montmorillonite exposed to ionizing radiation. The results obtained indicated that the decarboxylation reaction is enhanced several times by the irradiation. This behavior is probably due to an oxidation reaction at the edges of the clay. Also it is by energy transfer from the clay to adsorbed molecules by an interaction of non-equilibrium charge carriers with the adsorbed molecules.

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Abstract  

The purpose of this work is to study the radiolytic behavior of aqueous solutions of14C-pyruvic acid (oxygen-free). Several parameters were varied such as radiation dose, pH, etc. Gas chromatography, mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography were used extensively for the analysis of radiolytic products. The more abundant product was dimethyltartaric acid. Other products identified were acetic, lactic, succinic, malonic and tricarballylic acids, acetaldehyde, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen. The yields of these products were influenced by the irradiation dose, concentration of the target compound and pH of the solution.

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Abstract  

Thermally stimulated luminescence and optical absorption measurements were performed on NaCl single crystals, both single and double doped. The NaCl single crystals were exposed to gamma rays from a 60Co source at both low and room temperatures. The radiation-induced defects were mainly F and H centers, and the absorption bands for the F centers were centered at 464 nm. Bleaching with F-light showed the participation of the F center generated by gamma radiation on the TL phenomenon. The results suggest that NaCl single crystals, both single and double doped can be used as dosimeters, within certain doses.

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Abstract  

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was used to investigate the dosimetric properties of two pharmaceutical preparations containing acetylsalicylic acid, Aspirin® and Cafiaspirin®. The EPR spectra of the irradiated samples were found to have an asymmetric absorption characterized by a major resonance at g = 2.0033. Dose response was investigated between dose ranges of 2 to 95 kGy for 60Co-gamma rays. Fading characteristics and dependence on temperature irradiation were also studied. We suggest that commercial Aspirin® and Cafiaspirin® tablets can be used as dosimeters in the case of a short accident.

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Abstract  

The gamma radiolysis of malonic acid, succinic acid and their corresponding nitriles was carried out over a wide interval of radiation doses. The radiolytic products detected were H2, CO2, CO, NH3 and carboxylic acids. The results obtained supported the hypothesis that in the prebiotic milieu, ionizing radiation might have contributed to the synthesis of compounds of relevance in biological systems.

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Abstract  

The thermoluminescense (TL) behavior of solid solutions of cadmium and manganese doped single crystals under γ-irradiation is reported. Various compositions of single crystals of NaCl doped with Cd2+ and Mn2+ have been irradiated with ionizing radiation. The increase in the glow curve was followed as a function of the F-centers produced by the dose. The analysis shows the potential use of these materials as dosimeters.

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Abstract  

The present work shows a methodology for the application of EDXRF with a X-ray tube, in the analysis of elements in the following matrices: microalgae, marine algae, marine sediments and corals. Various methods were applied: one using a relative external standard, a fundamental parameters method, an absolute method based on elemental sensitivity, a method which used X-ray fluorescence excitation measured in the back side of the sample for low contents heavy elements determination and a TRXRF method. The thin layer samples were prepared using a plastic resin. The analyzed samples of marine algae, marine sediments and corals belong to a marine ecosystem from the North of Havana City, the most affected area by natural metereological phenomena and human impact.

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