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  • Author or Editor: A. Misra x
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Abstract  

The present investigation was carried out to screen compatibility of some diluents with pefloxacin mesilate using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), isothermal stability studies, along with stability studies in liquid state and to assign relative ranking to diluents. Compatibility was predicted with MCC101, MCC102, DCP anhydrous, Emcompress, while melting endotherm of drug was lost in admixtures of dextrose anhydrous, Pearlitol, Lactopress spray dried, Lactochem fine powder and Lycatab indicating possibility of interaction. Enthalpy changes were used for relative ranking of diluents.

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Abstract  

Batch equilibrium distribution data for Ce3+/H+ and Am3+/H+ systems in 0.2 to 4.0M HNO3 on 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 12 and 16% crosslinked Dowex 50W resins are reported. These data, along with the mean ionic activity coefficients of the tracer in the mixed electrolyte solutions, were used to calculate the equilibrium constant (K a) uncorrected for the resin phase activity coefficient. The logK a values obtained at various ionic strengths were fit to a second order quadratic equation. Using the fitting parameters, logK a values were calculated for the different resins at zero ionic strength. LogK (equilibrium constant) values were computed by neglecting the changes in the activity coefficient terms in the resin phase due to resin loading. The logK values reported for Ce3+/H+ systems at a few crosslinkages are compared and the magnitude of the error in the approximate calculations is discussed.

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Abstract  

Back-extraction of tri- and tetravalent actinides from diisodecylphosphoric acid (DIDPA) is studied using hydrazine carbonate as back-extractant. In experiments using 0.5M DIDPA–0.1M TBP n-dodecane solution, Am(III), Eu(III), Pu(IV) and Np(IV) are back-extracted, and the distribution ratios are decreased with an increase of hydrazine carbonate concentration. The back-extraction equilibria are confirmed by slope analysis in consideration of neutralization between DIDPA and hydrazine carbonate, which occurs quantitatively during back-extraction. In particular, oxidation of Np(IV) to Np(V) during back-extraction is observed by measuring absorption spectra. The hydrazinium ion acts as an oxidation reagent in the back-extraction of Np(IV). Separation factors of those metals are compared with the results of HDEHP. Hydrazine carbonate back-extracts Np(IV) more selectively from DIDPA than from HDEHP.

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Abstract  

When a biological system is either accidentally or intentionally exposed to radiation, the energy absorbed triggers a number of successive events including damage to living tissues. Major radiation damage is due to the aqueous free radicals generated by the radiolysis of water. These free radicals act as molecular marauders and in turn damage DNA, mitochondrial membrane, lipid, cellular protein, resulting in cellular dysfunction and mortality. In view of the above mentioned facts an experiment was conducted to study the genotoxic effects of γ radiation and its dose effectiveness. The present experiment was conducted on samples of plasmid pBR322 DNA as the in vitro experimental model devoid of any DNA repair and replication machinery. The samples were exposed to different doses of gamma radiations from 1 to 200 Gy. Exposure of plasmid pBR322 DNA to γ radiation resulted in production of single strand breaks as a result of which, the supercoiled (SC) form was converted to relaxed form (RL). Exposure of radiation, even at very low dose of 1 Gy, exhibited a significant damage to DNA resulting in about 70% SC form and 30% RL form of DNA. At a dose of 10 Gy the SC form was reduced to about 37% and further 5% at a dose of 50 Gy with about 88.5 and 6.5% RL and linear (L) forms of DNA respectively. Thus, the disappearance of supercoiled form of plasmid pBR322 DNA was found to be directly related to radiation dose and exhibited a radiation dose dependent pattern.

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Commelina benghalensis (Commelinaceae) is widely used as traditional and folklore medicine in India. In the present study, a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography—photodiode array detection (RP-HPLC—PDA) method was developed for the separation, identification, and quantification of bioactive phenolics. Antioxidant potential was also accessed to validate the presence of identified markers. Method was developed on C18 column with 1% formic acid (in water) and acetonitrile as solvent system, and data acquisitions were achieved at wavelength of 285 nm. The developed method was also validated for accuracy, precision, robustness, limit of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ), repeatability, and recovery according to International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. In this method, five phenolics, viz., protocatechuic acid (0.033%), vanillic acid (0.262%), ferulic acid (0.365%), apigenin (0.126%), and kaempferol (0.544%), were quantified in linearity range of 0.2–1.0 μg with correlation coefficient of more than 0.9949. Relative standard deviation (RSD) (%), LOD, LOQ, and recovery (%) are within the acceptable limit. Besides that, methanolic extract shows the inhibition (%) range from 24.45 to 68.75% at 0.02–0.12 mg mL−1. IC50 of extract was observed at 46.75 μg mL−1, suggesting the promising activity in methanol extract. Hence, the proposed method for simultaneous quantification of five bioactive phenolics in the tuber of C. benghalensis using HPLC–PDA detection under the specified conditions is specific and accurate, and validation proves its selectivity and reproducibility.

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