Two guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) with clinical signs of anorexia, weight loss, depression and abdominal enlargement were examined. During ultrasound examination, a fluid-filled anechogenic structure 3–4 cm in diameter, with echogenic spots and a highly echogenic thick wall, was found in the pelvic region in one case and connected to the liver in the other case. An abscess or a cyst was suspected and surgical treatment including laparotomy was performed. By histopathological examination performed after surgery, a liver abscess was diagnosed in one guinea pig and an abscess in the pelvic region in the other animal.
Epipactis albensis Nováková et Rydlo (Orchidaceae), a species previously undocumented in the flora of Ukraine, was found in three localities in this country (in vicinity of Chetfalva, Fanchykovo and Drotyntsi, Zakarpattia district) in 2012. The species (originally described from the Czech Republic) recently has only been known to exist in seven Central European countries. The three Ukrainian populations described here stretch within the floodplain of river Tisza. Based on measurements in 14 localities in Hungary, Ukraine and Romania the species has a considerably wide soil reaction tolerance (from 3.6 to 7.2 pHKCl). The fruit set of this strictly autogamous species is reasonably high (78%). The mean±SD thousand seed weight of the species was 0.0030±0.0005 grams, therefore E. albenis is classified into the hypermeichor seed-weight class. Recent discoveries of the species in Romania and Ukraine raise the possibility of its occurrence in further European countries.
The second part of the review dealing with the diagnostic radiology of pet and wild birds discusses the indications of radiological examination, the interpretation of radiographs taken of pathological lesions, and the differential diagnosis of such lesions. Radiology has paramount importance in the diagnosis of diseases affecting the skeletal, digestive, respiratory, urogenital and cardiovascular systems. Certain diseases (shortage of grits, ovarian cysts) cannot be recognised without radiography. Other conditions (e.g. Macaw Wasting Disease, renal tumours, egg retention) require this complementary diagnostic method for confirmation of a suspicion based upon the clinical signs. Radiographic examination is also indicated for follow-up of the surgical management of bone fractures and for facilitating the implantation of transponders aimed at individual identification of the birds.
Radiodiagnostic methods have not been used previously for studying the anatomy and diseases of the swimbladder of freshwater fish species. In this study, the radiographic anatomy of the swimbladder and species-related differences in swimbladder structure were studied on plain radiographs taken of 12 Hungarian fish species of major economic importance. Changes observed by radiography were also studied by conventional parasitological methods. The radiodiagnostic method reported here appears to be a useful complement to diagnostic examinations that have been based merely on dissection so far. It enables evaluation of the pathological lesions in live condition, without causing damage to the fish.
The paper presents the results of a long-term monitoring of bacterial diseases of wheat in the steppe zone of the Southern Ural. A clear domination of the genus Xanthomonas over the genus Pseudomonas has been revealed (60 and 11% of the total samples collected, respectively). The frequency of a winter wheat infection with these two pathogens exceeded that of the spring wheat. The field phytosanitary assessment resulted in the observation of the earlier unknown manifestation of the Xanthomonas infection called as tip bacteriosis.
The frequency of wheat infection with Xanthomonas sp. almost did not depend on the relief type, observation period, and sowing date, though the frequency of infection observed for the northern slope and lowland clearly exceeded those observed for other relief types. The frequency of infection with Pseudomonas sp. clearly depended on the sowing date and local relief type reaching the maximum at the lowlands (19–27%), so this relief type can be considered as a “signal” point for the early diagnostics of this pathogen.
The identification of pathogenic agents isolated from infected wheat seeds and plants, collected in the Southern Ural and characterized by an atypical manifestation of bacterial infection (yellow leaf tips), has been carried out by direct microbiological and molecular methods. In addition, an indirect identification by the hypersensitive reaction (HR) approach has been performed simultaneously with the pathogenicity assessment of isolates using an indicator plant Plectranthus australis R. Br. Isolated samples have been microbiologically identified as Xanthomonas sp. According to the results of the PCR identification with species-specific primers, isolated samples represent Xanthomonas translucens; the reliability of the obtained results is corroborated by the hypersensitive reaction approach used also to assess the pathogenicity of isolates. Winter wheat, especially cv. Pionerskaya 23, where both X. translucens and Pantoea agglomerans were found, suffered more severe symptoms than spring wheat that was only affected by strains of X. translucens. To improve the reliability of the primary diagnostics of a bacterial character of seed infection, the provoking of the pathogen development by temperature or pH stress is proposed.
The rare, fully mycoheterotrophic Ghost Orchid, Epipogium aphyllum is only visible during its short flowering and fruiting season, which lasts for a few weeks between May and October. Due to the apparent unpredictability of its flowering, decades may pass between subsequent observations at the same locality. The factors affecting timing of flowering in this enigmatic species remain largely unexplored. In Hungary, it is an extremely rare species: between 1924 and 2014 only 25 dated observations from 15 locations are known. Hungary is located on the edge of the species’ distribution area where higher precipitation may occur only in higher regions of mountains. Hence, the spatial and temporal pattern of precipitation might limit the emergence of generative shoots. In this paper we compared rainfall patterns in relation with the Ghost Orchids’ observations to multiannual precipitation averages. The year of flowering and the month preceding flowering (but not the year before flowering and the month of flowering) were characterised by significantly more rainfall than the multi-annual average precipitation. These results suggest that the appearance of the species in Hungary is precipitation-dependent.
Clopidogrel is an inhibitor of platelet-aggregation used in the prevention of secondary stroke. The molecule is activated by the cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) enzyme. The frequent CYP2C19*2 point mutation causes loss of enzyme function, a decreased (heterozygous form) or blocked (homozygous form) formation of the active molecule. Thus, for a patient harboring a mutated allele, clopidogrel does not provide effective protection against stroke. Multiple drugs inhibit the CYP2C19 enzyme and their simultaneous use with clopidogrel is especially hazardous for patients with genetically decreased enzyme activity. Frequency of the CYP2C19*2 is variable in different populations, highest rates were detected in some Asian groups. In our study the CYP2C19 genotype was determined in one Hungarian sample of 354 stroke patients and 221 healthy controls. Frequency of the minor allele was found to be 12.87% (12.85% in stroke patients, 12.89% in healthy controls). The proportion of the homozygous CYP2C19*2 variant causing total loss of gene function was 1.74%, rate of the heterozygous allele causing reduced enzyme activity was 22.26% in the total population. Our results for the allele frequencies of the CYP2C19*2 gene are similar to those found in other Caucasian populations. In conclusion, the homozygous mutation, causing ineffectiveness of clopidogrel is relatively rare. However, the heterozygous form in which interaction of CYP2C19 inhibitors causes further decrease in the genetically impaired enzyme activity is present in every fifth drug-taking patient. Based on our findings, we would like to emphasize that it is important to adjust individually antiplatelet treatment in ischemic stroke patients and to take into consideration genetic factors as well as drugs taken for comorbid conditions.
The taxonomy of the genus
, in which two European species, a smaller eastern
and a more robust western
are included, has been controversial since the description of the eastern species in 1821. Nuclear encoded ribosomal DNA ITS1 and the entire chloroplast DNA ITS were sequenced from several European populations, from France to the Ukraine, and the leaf width of mature living individuals was measured and analysed by ANOVA and Tukey-test. Although the studied DNA regions proved to be invariable, leaf width shows extreme variability. We found no correlation between the leaf size of the individuals and the geographical position of the populations, and in addition, the sequenced DNA regions showed total uniformity. Thus, our results do not support the division of the genus
into two taxa, at least in the sampled area. The formerly described size variants can be treated taxonomically at the
The first version of the map of the Hungarian vegetation-based landscape regions were prepared at the scale of 1: 200,000 (1 km or higher resolution). The primary goal of the map was to provide an exact background for the presentation and evaluation of the data of the MÉTA database. Secondly, we intended to give an up-to-date and detailed vegetation-based division of Hungary with a comprehensive nomenclature of the regions. Regions were primarily defined on the basis of their present zonal vegetation, or their dominant extrazonal or edaphic vegetation. Where this was not possible, abiotic factors that influence the potential vegetation, the flora were taken into consideration, thus, political and economical factors were ignored. All region borders were defined by local expert botanists, mainly based on their field knowledge. The map differs in many features from the currently used, country-wide, flora-or geography-based divisions in many features. We consider our map to be temporary (i.e. a work map), and we plan to refine and improve it after 5 years of testing.