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Radiation initiated polymerisation of N,N-dimethyl acrylamide was investigated in an aqueous medium. The polymerisation followed first order kinetics at all the concentration of monomers used. The rate constant is 0.024 h–1 at a dose rate of 270 rad/min, for 0.025 mol·dm–3.

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Microscopic organisms play a vital role in the field of green technology. Among the genera fungi, the group of entomopathogens includes Beauveria bassiana, which has been found to have multifunctional applications. In this present research, we have attempted to partially purify chitinase from two strains of Beauveria bassiana (F881 and F911), each cultured in minimal media with 1% (w/v) colloidal chitin as well as in Sabouraud's dextrose media with 1% (w/v) colloidal chitin. The purification process was done with a setup of ceramic membranes, which comprises two stages, ultrafiltration (50 nm pore size membrane) and nanofiltration (MWCO 5 kDa). Furthermore, with the analysis of yield of enzymatically hydrolyzed NAG (N-acetyl glucosamine), resistance and fouling of the membrane were also studied.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
A. Nath
S. Mondal
A. Csighy
M.A. Molnár
K. Pásztorné-Huszár
Z. Kovács
A. Koris
, and
Gy. Vatai

In the dairy industry different types of prebiotics, such galacto-oligosaccharide, lactulose, lactosucrose, tagatose, lactitol, lactobiono- and glucono-δ-lactone are synthesized through different chemical and biochemical reactions (hydrolysis, transgalactosylation, isomerization, fructosyl-transfer, reduction, and oxidation) as well as microbial fermentation processes using raw whey or isolated lactose as feedstock. Lactose-derived prebiotics have several functional and nutritional values. The biochemical activities of lactose-based prebiotics are expressed in the presence of probiotics (lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, Bacillus spp.). Galacto-oligosaccharide and lactosucrose reduce the risk of bowel disorder (diarrhea), inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and crohn’s disease), and colon cancer. Galacto-oligosaccharide helps colonic absorption of minerals (iron, magnesium and calcium) and prevents osteoporosis. Lactulose, galacto-oligosaccharide, and lactitol promote laxative activity. Furthermore, lactulose may decrease the risk of hepatic encephalopathy. Prebiotics have low calorific value and glycemic index. Galacto-oligosaccharide and tagatose reduce the risks of hyperglycemia (Type 2 diabetes) and low density lipid (lipoprotein) accumulation in blood stream. Moreover, prebiotics improve immunomodulation, which reduces the risk of respiratory infection and allergies. This review describes unique biochemical mechanisms of several types of lactose-derived prebiotics.

Open access