Gamma-radiolytic decomposition of zirconium nitrate and its binary mixtures with potassium halides viz. KCl, KBr and KI has been studied at different compositions up to an absorbed dose of 550 kGy. Radiolytic decomposition has been found to decrease with the absorbed dose. It also varies with the concentration of zirconium nitrate in the binary mixtures. G(NO
) values are enhanced by the addition of halides but only at 75% composition. It is not affected so significantly by KI. A plot of G(NO
) vs. composition of the binary mixtures of the nitrates shows a somewhat parabolic curve with a minimum at 75% Zr(NO3)4+25% KX composition. A part of the energy absorbed by the system is being taken up by the halides depending upon their nature and concentration. Thermal decomposition shows slow decomposition, finally yielding an oxynitrate of indefinite composition.
Gamma-ray induced decomposition of binary mixtures of potassium nitrate with 90, 70, 50, 30 and 10 mol% SiO2, Al2O3, MnO2, V2O5, La2O3, CeO2, Sm2O3, Eu2O3, Gd2O3 and Dy2O3 has been studied at different doses up to 500 kGy. Radiolytic decomposition of the nitrate is affected by the concentration
of the oxide in the binary mixture as well as by the absorbed dose. The enhancement is up to 103 times at 90 mol% of the additive.G(NO2−) values calculated on the basis of electron fraction of the nitrate decrease with the increasing concentration of the nitrate.
A comparison ofG(NO2−) for 90 mol% oxides shows decreasing trend as Gd2O3>Sm2O3≈Dy2O3> Eu2O3>CeO2>Al2O3>V2O5>SiO2>MnO2. ESR and TL measurements suggest the formation of radical species which interact with the radical species of nitrate causing
enhanced decomposition by energy transfer mechanism.
Gamma — radiolytic decomposition of sodium and potassium nitrates and its admixtures with respective cyanide and borate additives
has been studied over a wide absorbed dose range from 675 to 500 kGy. The decomposition of nitrate increases with the nature
and concentration of the additive in the admixture. The enhancement is more significant at >80 mol% of the additive.G(NO
) values, calculated on the basis of electron fraction of the nitrate salt, decrease with increasing concentration of the
nitrate. ESR spectral studies suggest the formation of radical species such as BO4 and BO
etc, in borates whereas in case of cyanide additive FH centres are produced. The radical species and colour centres so produced may then transfer their energy to nitrate and cause
enhancement in decomposition. A comparison with other oxyanion additives shows thatG(NO
) values decrease in the order PO
. Similarly, the nature of the cation also affects the decomposition.
Double nitrates of Na and K having the composition 2MINO3·LnIII(NO3)3·2H2O(LnIII=Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb and Dy) and of Ni and Cu with the composition 3MII(NO3)2·2LnIII(NO3)3·24H2O (LnIII=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb and Dy) have been prepared and their -radiolytic decomposition studied up to 500 kGy. G(NO
) values of K double nitrates at 230 kGy follow the order Dy3+>Pr3+=Nd3+=Sm3+>Tb3+>Eu3+> Gd3+·G(NO
) for NI double nitrates are higher than those of Cu double nitrates. Variation of G(NO
) with cationic radii and the number of f electrons in lanthanide ion show a minimum at Eu. Thermal decomposition studies of double nitrates were also carried out.
Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been used for the determination of 27 elements (Ag, Au, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hg, Hf, K, La, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, Se Sr, Th, P, Ta, Tb, Zn and Zr) in 15 water samples collected from different sources (reservoirs, well, borewell, sewage tank, river, rain) in and around Nagpur city (central India) including doubly distilled and a sea water sample from Bombay. Sample residues after evaporation were irradiated at a thermal neutron flux of 1012–1013 n·cm–2·s–1 for 10 min, 1d and 1wk and counted using a HPGe detector and an 4k MCA at different intervals. Several environmental standards from NIST (USA), NIES (Japan) and USGS rock were also analysed for quality assurance. Wide variations in elemental concentrations have been observed in water samples from different sources. Most elemental concentrations in drinking water from various sources, are within ISI/WHO limits. Sea water showed very high concentrations of Ba, Cr, Co, Fe, Hg, Sb, Se and Zn. For doubly distilled and rain waters, however, very low elemental concentrations of Ba, Ce, Fe, Sc, Hg, Se, Sr and Th were observed.
A radiochemical solvent extraction method has been developed for the determination of Cr(III) using51Cr tracer. It is based on the complexation of Cr(III) with 8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine) and acetylacetone as mixed ligands at pH 3.8 and extraction in chloroform. Effect of various parameters such as pH, time of equilibration, nature of solvent, quantitative nature, effect of diverse ions has been studied. The method can be used up to 200 ng of Cr.
Human, animal (cow, buffalo and goat) and commercial milk powders (for infants and adults) have been analyzed for 5 minor (Na, K, Mg, Cl and P) and 13 trace elements (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, As, Se, Sb, Cs and Br) by instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation. Milk standards NIST SRM 1549 and IAEA A-11 along with diet standards RM 8431 a and IAEA H-9 were also analyzed for quality assurance. The method involves thermal neutron irradiation for 10 m, 1 h, 6 h and 1 week in a reactor followed by high resolution -spectrometry. Concentrations of Fe, Co, Zn, Sb, and Se were also determined by radiochemical solvent extraction. Mean concentrations of Na, K, Mg, P, Cl, Fe, Mn and Cu in human milk (colostrum) are comparable with that of a WHO/IAEA study. It has, however, lower contents of toxic trace elements (Cr, Cd, Hg, Br, Se, Sb and As) compared to breast tissue from the same area. Cow milk is richer in Na, K, Cl, Mn and Se but it has comparable amounts of Mg, Zn, Br, Fe and Sb with respect to breast milk. Significant differences have been observed for elemental concentrations of Na, K, P and Fe in commercial formula milk powders for infants and adults. Infant's milk powders contain all the nutrient elements in balanced amounts required for the higher growth rate of a child.
In order to assess the source of pollutants and the atmosphere quality in and around a thermal power plant, fugitive dust particulates from seven different locations and ambient air dust from six locations have been analyzed for 32 elements (As, Au, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hg, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Tb, Te, Th, W and Yb) by employing instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The method involves the irradiation of samples and comparator standards in a thermal neutron flux range of 1012–1013n·cm–2·s–1 in a nuclear reactor for 10 min and 1 day followed by high resolution -spectrometry. Wide differences have been observed in the mean elemental concentrations of Fe, Co, Br, Mn, As, P. Ba and Cu in fugitive and ambient dust particulates coliected from these different locations. Further, a comparison of the elemental contents of the dust particulates from the plant with environmental standards (Urban Particulate Matter, Coal Fly Ash, Vehicle Exhaust and Coal) show significantly lower or comparable amounts of toxic and pollutant elements in the environmental samples.
Authors:A. Garg, N. Chutke, M. Ambulkar, and A. Aggarwal
The process of urbanization and industrialization during las two decades has resulted in increased level of air pollution causing hazards to human health. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using short and long term irradiation has been employed for the determination of more than 30 elements in suspended particulate matter (SPM) from six metropolitan cities and three industrial surroundings. A comparison of mean elemental contents in dust particulates from commercial, industrial and residential zones of Delhi, Calcutta, Madras, Cochin, Bombay and Nagpur cities has shown wide variation in toxic pollutant (As, Br, Cr, Cu, Hg and Sb) concentrations. Coastal areas have shown higher concentrations of Na, K, Cl and Br. Highly industrialized Bombay showed highest levels of Br, Cl, Cr, Fe, Mg, P, Rb and Sc. Mean elemental contents in fugitive and ambient dust of a cement factory and thermal power station (both in central India) are widely different. SPM levels in fugitive dust of the two industrial surroundings are higher by an order of magnitude compared to ambient air. Analysis of ambient air dust from a paper mill showed highest concentrations of Hg, Sb and Zn. Elemental data have been compared with those of Urban Particulate Matter (SRM 1648), Coal Fly Ash (SRM 1633a) and Vehicle Exhaust Particulate (NIES No. 8) which were analysed for quality control. An attempt has been made to attribute the elemental contents to possible sources of origin.
Authors:A. N. Garg, A. Kumar, G. Maheshwari, and S. Sharma
Radioanalytical techniques have been applied in a study on (subclinical) hepatitis in Dobermann dogs. Cu levels in transcutaneous obtained full liver biopsies were quantified using INAA and 66Cu. A copper excretion study was performed in a group of completely normal Dobermann dogs and in six Dobermanns with elevated copper levels and suffering from subclinical hepatitis. 64Cu2+ was used to assess whether a normal bile flow and thus excretion was possible. All subjects underwent separately from this 64Cu2+ excretion study a 99mTc-Bis-IDA scintigraphy. The Cu levels in liver of these hepatitis patients vary from 600 to 1600 mg . kg-1 whereas 100-300 mg . kg-1 is probably normal for healthy Dobermann dogs. These Cu levels match fully with histopathology results and clinical observations. Measurements during a 2 years' evaluation period showed a clear relation between the existence of subclinical hepatitis and increased Cu levels without a sign for cholestasis or an abnormal bile flow.