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In the present study, 16 women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) due to Candida albicans and Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata were followed for a period of 4 to 12 months, and 36 vaginal isolates were evaluted by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Eleven women were infected by C. albicans and5 by C. glabrata.Three electrophoretic karyotypes of C. albicans and 3 of C. glabrata were identified throughout the follow-up. All patients but one was infected with the same karyotype of C. albicans or C. glabrata during the follow-up period.Two different karyotypes of C. glabrata were identified in one patient in the course of 12 months. The results confirmed the diversity of the karyotypes of C. albicans and C. glabrata causing vulvovaginitis and demonstrated the persistence of colonization with the same strain over different periods of time despite therapy (15/16 women).

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Vitamin D2 is essential for the human body and mushrooms are proved to be one of the best sources of it. In our experiment biologically active, pre-harvest white and cream type button mushrooms and oyster mushroom were treated with UVB light in order to increase their vitamin D2 level, by transforming their natural ergosterol content into vitamin D2. UVB lamps (operating on 312 nm) and six time periods of irradiation (15 to 90 min) were used. After three consecutive days of treatments the yield were measured and samples were taken for vitamin D2 analysis. Data showed considerable increase in vitamin D2 levels at every time period in each cultivar.

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Analysis of flagellin genes was carried out on strains of Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Hadar, Salmonella Abortusequi, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Gallinarum serovars, using a PCR system designed in this study. The purpose of these studies was to explore the flagellin genes of biphasic and monophasic Salmonellae for future targeted genetic interventions. The PCR primers were designed for two different structural genes of flagellin (fliC, fljB), for the repressor of fliC (fljA), for the operator region of fliC, and for the invertase system responsible for phase variation in Salmonella (hin, hixL, hixR). PCR analysis revealed that all of the examined genes (fliC, fliC-operator, fljB, fljA, hin, hixL, hixR) were present in all S. Typhimurium (n = 10)and S. Hadar (n = 10) strains tested. The results obtained on S. Typhimurium and S. Hadar strains confirmed their biphasic character at DNA level. However, the S. Enteritidis (n = 46) and S. Gallinarum (n = 5) strains lacked the invertase system (hin, hixL, hixR) as well as the fljA and fljB genes, while fliC and its operator were detectable. Consequently, the S. Enteritidis strains could only express fliC gene resulting in phase H1 flagellin. The examined S. Gallinarum strains were also demonstrated to have a cryptic flagellin gene (fliC). On the other hand, PCR results on S. Abortusequi (n = 2) indicated that both flagellin genes (fliC, fljB) and the whole phase variation system were present in both strains tested but only the H2 phase gene (fljB) was expressed. The phenotype of these strains could be clarified by motility test and/or by classical flagellar serology. The findings are also substantiated by the results of serovar-specific PCR for S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. In conclusion, the PCR system developed in this study proved to be suitable for characterisation of Salmonella flagellin genes and confirmed serological results regarding all S. Typhimurium, S. Hadar and S. Enteritidis strains. This system could also identify cryptic flagellar genes of S. Abortusequi and S. Gallinarum.

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The aim of the study was to determine the characteristics of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county in North-Eastern Hungary and to elaborate an environmentally sound agricultural strategy. 50% of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county is arable land (303,950 ha). After the change of regime there was no significant decrease in the size of the arable land. Cultivation is still practised on soils of poorer quality. Under the changed production conditions, crop cultivation in its present form does not come up to the economic expectations. The sowing structure is not suited to the regional climate and soil conditions; 75% of the arable land is occupied by only 5 species of plant. A change in the cultivation profile (afforestation) can be expected on connected marginal areas where economic calculations indicate that economical cultivation is not possible. A typical feature of the region's cereal production is that it takes up significantly more arable land than is justified: in recent years the average ratio of cereals was 60–65%. In certain microregions the production of protein fodders is recommended for the economical production of better quality meat. There has been an increase in the area sown to triticale, peas, beans and cucumber for seed production. The production of flowers, vegetables, spices and herbs should be promoted; these plants require manual work, so they could play a significant role in solving employment problems. On more unfavourable areas, suitable for the cultivation of agricultural products, the production of low-input plants (e.g. rye, triticale, sorghum) suitable for extensive cultivation should be considered. In small regions with favourable ecological and infrastructural situations the area sown to crops with greater production value and greater labour requirements can be expected to increase.

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Twenty-seven isolates of Phytophthora infestans collected in Hungary in 2001 were tested for mating type, response to metalaxyl, isozyme geno­type at glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (Gpi) and peptidase A (Pep) loci and nuclear DNA fingerprints with probe RG57. The ratios of the mating types A1 to A2 were 5:6 and 9:7 among isolates from potato and tomato, respectively. Seventeen isolates were sensitive to metalaxyl, 1 isolate responded intermediately and 9 isolates were resistant. No novel combi­nations of isozyme alleles were found; all isolates were Gpi 100/100, and genotypes at the Pep locus were 96/96 (63%), 83/96 (11%) and 100/100 (26%). In contrast, all of the 22 RG57 fingerprints exhibited patterns that have not been reported in Hungary before. On the basis of combined traits, 22 multilocus genotypes, unnoted elsewhere in Europe, were con­struct­ed among the 27 isolates analysed. These results indicate that varia­bi­lity in the Hungarian P. infestans populations is likely due to local events (asexual and sexual interactions) rather than migration from other countries.

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Abstract  

For the electrodeposition of119Sn, aluminium, iron, nickel, copper, silver and platinum foil substrates were used. The samples were measured before and after heat-treatments between 350–485 K. In several cases interphase formation was observed even before the first heat treatment. Diffusion data were alsc obtained.

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Extracellular microelectrode recordings were carried out on 150 neurons in the anterior ectosylvian sulcal region of halothane-anesthetized, immobilized, artificially ventilated cats. Fifty-nine neurons were visual, 60 were auditory and 31 were bimodal visual-auditory. As the extent of the receptive fields has never been exactly determined, we introduced a quasi-objective, computer-based, statistical method in order to estimate the receptive field sizes in the anterior half of the perimeter. The visual, auditory and bimodal cells had very large receptive fields, often with portions extending well into the ipsilateral hemifield. The mean extents of the visual and auditory receptive fields in the horizontal plane were 75.75 (N=59, SD: ±28.62, range: 15-135), and 132.5 (N=60, SD: ±46.72, range: 15-165) respectively. These data suggest that a single visual neuron can carry information from the whole visual field of the right eye and a single auditory unit can carry information of azimuths throughout the whole area of the horizontal plane studied. The mean extent of the bimodal receptive fields in the horizontal plane was 82.1 (N=31, SD: ±24.24, range: 30-135). In 21 of the 31 bimodal cells we observed a facilitatory interaction between visual and auditory stimuli. The mean extent of the facilitatory interactions in these cells was 75.75 (N=21, SD: ±24.56, range: 45-135).

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Periodica Mathematica Hungarica
Authors: S. Gyökér, M. Szilvási-Nagy and Á. Császár

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