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Magyar Sebészet
Author: A veszprémi Sebészeti Osztály orvosai
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Funeral bed or cabin? On the structure of Lengyel graves with posts in South Transdanubia. The authors analyse the shapes and the structures of the graves of the Late Neolithic — Early Copper Age (Lengyel culture) cemetery of Alsónyék-Bátaszék (South Transdanubia) with the help of trait analysis (“Merkmalanalyse”). The primary aim of the analysis is to examine the evolution and the origin of the uncovered post structure graves, a new phenomenon in the Central and SE European Neolithic and Copper Age. A hundred and twenty-three graves (7.72% of all the graves) had an interior posthole in each corner of the shaft. Several types and versions of this grave structure could be distinguished based on metric and morphological traits. Beside the typology of the grave shafts, the authors examine the social status of the persons who were often buried in these graves with especially rare and unique grave furniture. According to the final conclusions, they were not immigrants but the members of the local Lengyel population. The data shed light on both the social and the hierarchical changes that took place in the life of the Lengyel communities at the end of the Late Neolithic and in the initial phase of the Early Copper Age.

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The authors discuss a group of objects having specific or cultic functions in the late neolithic Lengyel culture, which had formerly been referred to as “lamps”, “clay lamps” or “small clay altars”. These objects have been known from the entire occupation territory of the Lengyel community. However, recent excavations uncovered similar finds in a few graves of the Lengyel cemetery at Alsónyék-Bátaszék, which represent new types of the discussed group of objects. The Alsónyék cemetery with the unearthed 2400 burials of the Lengyel period and the settlement with 90 houses are the largest cemetery and settlement of the Eurasian area to date. The authors describe and publish these objects and the crouched inhumation burials that contained them. They also classify the finds and determine their typological and chronological place first of all within the Lengyel community. The possible antecedents are also reviewed in the Central and SE European Neolithic and Early Copper Age. Based on H. Schwarzberg’s study of the Anatolian and SE European finds, they suggest the name “Kulttischchen” for the finds of the Lengyel culture as well. According to the anthropological analyses, these objects were placed exclusively beside women at Alsónyék and also in the Mórágy late neolithic cemetery, which indicates the role that women played in the cultic life of the contemporary communities.

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In this paper, the authors discuss the dog offerings and dog burials found at the Lengyel culture (Late Neolitic/Early Copper Age) cemetery and settlement of Alsónyék-Bátaszék (sites 10/B and 5603/1). The role and symbolism of dog in the Neolithic and Early Copper Age are concerned based on archaeological, anthropological and archaeozoological data. The authors also analyse the social status of individuals next to whom the dogs have been buried. In addition to the presentation of Lengyel culture finds, a review on the Neolithic and Early Copper Age dog finds from Central and South-East Europe is given.

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Polished and perforated pendants carved from boar tusks, and jaws of boars and pigs are frequent grave furniture in the Late Neolithic and Early Copper Age cemeteries of the Carpathian Basin . Pairs of tusk pendants were generally placed beside the dead in the early phase of the Lengyel culture, especially beside high status males, who wore these objects as symbols. The 2500 graves of the Alsónyék-Kanizsa-dűlő cemetery represent the late phase of the Lengyel culture, where instead of the pairs of tusk pendants, a huge boar tusk or a tusk disc perforated at the wider terminal was placed on the skull or beside the skull. Pig jaw grave furniture is missing here. The authors examine the occurrence of these types of grave finds in the Neolithic of the Carpathian Basin and Central and South-Eastern Europe. They try to classify the finds and determine their chronology and function.

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