Local governments are responsible for the provision of primary education in Hungary, this being the largest expenditure item in their budget. The segmented structure of Hungarian local government may be a source of inefficiencies, since one of the most important source of inefficiencies is diseconomies of scale. This paper, using data of two counties — Baranya and Békés — presents a cost—benefit calculation with respect to the operational costs of a hypothetical, newly structured primary education system, where only institutions of “optimal (efficient) size” are operated. Two scenarios are presented. According to the first one all schools of inefficient size would be closed down, while according to the second this could happen only if there is at least one additional social/cultural institution in the settlement in question. The results of the simulation, being rough calculations, may provide guidance on what kind of questions might occur and what the approximate magnitudes of expenditures of a new system might be under specific conditions of reorganisation.
Some methods developed in collaboration between the ATOMKI and IEP for bulk hydrogen analysis and for the detection and identification
of illicit drugs are presented. Advantages and limitations of neutron techniques (reflection, transmission, elastic and inelastic
scatterings, leakage spectra and angular yields of Be(d,n), Pu–Be, D–D, D–T and 252Cf neutrons transmitted from thick samples, effects of hidden materials) are discussed.
Authors:Andrea Szabó, A. Papp, and L. Nagymajtényi
Rats were treated with a combination of insecticide agents in different timing schemes. In acute administration, 1/5 LD50 of the three insecticides: dimethoate, propoxur and cypermethrin, or their combination, was given once by gavage. In the developmental model, female rats received oral doses of 1/25 LD50 of the above insecticides in combination in three timing schemes including pregnancy and lactation. Responses in the somatosensory cortex and in the tail nerve, evoked by peripheral electric stimulation, were recorded in acute preparation under urethane anesthesia. It was tested whether the parameters of the cortical and peripheral evoked response are dependent on the frequency and whether this dependence is different in control and treated animals. The latency increase of the cortical responses with increasing stimulation frequency was significantly stronger in rats treated acutely with cypermethrin and the combination, and in rats receiving the combination during both intra- and extrauterine development. On the duration, the effects were less clear. Frequency dependent increase of the tail nerve action potential latency was significantly intensified by cypermethrin, and the amplitude decrease, by cypermethrin and dimethoate. Fatigue of this response during a stimulation series was also altered by the insecticides. Frequency dependence and fatigue possibly reflect the actual state of the nervous system and may have the potency to be developed to functional biomarkers.
An activation analytical method has been developed for determining Cd, Ag, Sb, Se, Br by 14 MeV neutron-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy using Pr as an internal standard. A good correlation was obtained between the activity ratio, RAo and the weight ratio, RW. Results are given after correction for self-absorption and without correction. The results are comparable in both cases when dilution with H3BO3 (90%) is applied. The elements listed can be determined at minor concentrations (0.01%) with a relative error not more than ±5%.
The empirical coefficient method represents the absorption and enhancement effect of each element on each other by parameters independent of mass concentrations. This method is used together with the internal standard method for the determination of cadmium, bromine and selenium by 14 MeV neutron activation followed by X-ray spectrometry. The results of analysis show a relative error not more than ±5%.
The problem of converting measured intensities into mass concentrations arises from the fact that the measured intensity of a characteristic X-ray line of an element or compound depends not only on the mass concentration of that element or compound but also on the nature and abundance of the other constituents of the specimen. In this work the empirical coefficient method which comprises both absorption and enhancement effects of each element on each other element by parameters independent of mass concentrations was used for correction of enhancement effects from antimony and praseodymium on bromine in two groups of samples. The results of analysis of bromine shows a relative error of not more than ±4%.
A method is described for the simultaneous determination of cadmium, antimony and praseodymium by 14-MeV neutron activation analysis based on characteristic X-ray spectrometry. The results of analysis show a relative error not higher than ±5%, when diluted with H3BO3 /90%/ and utilizing the internal standard method to minimize the interelement effects.
14 MeV neutron activation followed by X-ray spectrometry was applied to the simultaneous nondestructive determination of cadmium, antimony and bromine, utilizing praseodymium as an internal standard. The results of analysis show a relative error not higher than ±5%, when the samples were diluted with H3BO3
-5% to minimize the interelement effects.
The intensity of characteristic X-rays emitted from one element may be reduced by partial absorption by other elements in the matrix, or alternatively it is enhanced by their presence. In this work the enhancement effect of antimony on bromine, cadmium and selenium are given. The dependence of the specific activity of each element /Cd, Br and Se/ on the ratio of the weight of Sb to that of the element is given, when the concentration of Sb is not very low /-5%/.
14 MeV neutron activation of ternary copper silver selenide gives rise to a predominant activity from the 0.511 MeV annihilation peak from the three elements when -ray spectrometry is used. To overcome the interference problems, X-ray spectrometry was applied to the simultaneous nondestructive determination of silver and selenium, after which copper can be determined by -ray spectrometry. The results of analysis show a relative error not higher than ±5%, when the samples were diluted with H3BO3 /90%/ to minimize the interelement effects.