Local governments are responsible for the provision of primary education in Hungary, this being the largest expenditure item in their budget. The segmented structure of Hungarian local government may be a source of inefficiencies, since one of the most important source of inefficiencies is diseconomies of scale. This paper, using data of two counties — Baranya and Békés — presents a cost—benefit calculation with respect to the operational costs of a hypothetical, newly structured primary education system, where only institutions of “optimal (efficient) size” are operated. Two scenarios are presented. According to the first one all schools of inefficient size would be closed down, while according to the second this could happen only if there is at least one additional social/cultural institution in the settlement in question. The results of the simulation, being rough calculations, may provide guidance on what kind of questions might occur and what the approximate magnitudes of expenditures of a new system might be under specific conditions of reorganisation.
Some methods developed in collaboration between the ATOMKI and IEP for bulk hydrogen analysis and for the detection and identification
of illicit drugs are presented. Advantages and limitations of neutron techniques (reflection, transmission, elastic and inelastic
scatterings, leakage spectra and angular yields of Be(d,n), Pu–Be, D–D, D–T and 252Cf neutrons transmitted from thick samples, effects of hidden materials) are discussed.
Rats were treated with a combination of insecticide agents in different timing schemes. In acute administration, 1/5 LD50 of the three insecticides: dimethoate, propoxur and cypermethrin, or their combination, was given once by gavage. In the developmental model, female rats received oral doses of 1/25 LD50 of the above insecticides in combination in three timing schemes including pregnancy and lactation. Responses in the somatosensory cortex and in the tail nerve, evoked by peripheral electric stimulation, were recorded in acute preparation under urethane anesthesia. It was tested whether the parameters of the cortical and peripheral evoked response are dependent on the frequency and whether this dependence is different in control and treated animals. The latency increase of the cortical responses with increasing stimulation frequency was significantly stronger in rats treated acutely with cypermethrin and the combination, and in rats receiving the combination during both intra- and extrauterine development. On the duration, the effects were less clear. Frequency dependent increase of the tail nerve action potential latency was significantly intensified by cypermethrin, and the amplitude decrease, by cypermethrin and dimethoate. Fatigue of this response during a stimulation series was also altered by the insecticides. Frequency dependence and fatigue possibly reflect the actual state of the nervous system and may have the potency to be developed to functional biomarkers.
Due to the shift in consumer behaviour, the proportion of well informed, conscious consumers has been growing steadily, and functional foods with their capacity to protect health have been gaining more and more ground. To achieve market success in the field of functional foods, producers should be able to communicate information effectively concerning health issues and their newly developed product should indeed meet consumer expectations. The aim of our study was to identify and define the components of the dimensions of consumer attitudes in Hungary together with the barriers and motivators of health behaviour. Our research also examined how these factors influence consumer willingness to consume functional foods. Our surveys were carried out in focus groups of health-conscious (n=8) and not health-conscious (n=8) consumers. Our findings confirmed the adequacy of the international dual model, regarding the attitudes of Hungarian consumers towards functional food. Moreover, we also explored the most popular health food categories and sources of information on nutrition.
3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP), a substance used for modelling Huntington’s disease, was given to male Wistar rats in a single 20 mg/kg b.w. dose, and the resulting behavioral alterations in spontaneous locomotor activity were measured after 30 minutes. To detect the involvement of neurotransmitter systems in this immediate effect, the NMDA antagonist MK-801 (0.8 mg/kg); as well as an agonist, quinpirole (QP, 5 mg/kg) and an antagonist, sulpiride (SP, 80 mg/kg) of the dopamine D2 receptors, were given before 3-NP to separate groups of rats. Controls were given saline. All substances were injected ip. 3-NP decreased the rats’ locomotor, especially vertical, activity, whereas local activity was increased. Based on the further changes of 3-NP effects in the combination groups it could be concluded that dopaminergic rather than glutamatergic mechanisms were possibly involved in the acute behavioral effect of 3-NP.
Clinical observations of Babesia canis infection in 63 dogs during a 1-year period are summarised, demonstrating the pathogenicity of the Babesia strain endemic in Hungary. Most patients had babesiosis in the spring and autumn, correlating with the seasonal activity of ticks. Male animals appeared in higher numbers, probably due to an overrepresentation of outdoor dogs. Uncomplicated babesiosis was diagnosed in 32 cases. The disease affected dogs of any age in this study. Symptoms were similar to those published from other parts of the world: lethargy, fever, splenomegaly, pallor, icterus, haemoglobinuria and presence of ticks were the most common observations. Thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and neutropenia were frequent haemogram changes. Imidocarb appeared to be highly effective in eliminating the Babesia infection. Thirty-one animals demonstrated babesiosis with complications. Most Rottweilers (7/9) developed complicated disease. Old age was a risk factor for multiple complications. Multiple organ manifestations had poor prognosis. Hepatopathy (44%), pancreatitis (33%), acute renal failure (ARF; 31%) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC; 24%) were frequent complications, while immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA; 10%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS; 6%) and cerebral babesiosis (3%) were rarely observed. There was a significant difference between the mean age of dogs having uncomplicated disease, babesiosis with a single complication and babesiosis with multiple complications (3.4, 4.8 and 8.6 years, respectively, p < 0.001). The recovery rate (78, 68 and 25%, respectively, p = 0.005) and mortality rate (3, 21 and 67%, respectively, p < 0.001) also tended to differ significantly in these groups. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and DIC are two possible pathways leading to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in babesiosis. DIC was found to predict MODS more sensitively in this study than SIRS: there were 6 animals developing MODS out of 11 identified with DIC, while only 5 dogs developed MODS out of 22 having SIRS.
The effect of reduction of pressure on the shapes of the TG, DTG and DTA curves and the mass-spectra of hydroxide and carbonate phases was investigated in some typical Hungarian red muds. The pressure change caused different decomposition rates of the phases and resulted in better separation of the overlapping thermal curves; this led to advantages as regards phase analysis. For phase analysis the red muds were extracted with water, and the extracts and solid residues were identified by IR- and X-ray methods.
Ganoderma is a worldwide distributed genus of polyporoid fungi causing white-rot. The sporocarps of these species are popular drug in the traditional medicine of the Far East. Although several species are proven to contain chemicals of different biological activities, only Ganoderma lucidum is cultivated on the large scale. It is an important goal of mushroom growing to involve genetically diverse strains in this field of industry (e.g. for Agaricus, Pleurotus), thus the range of cultivated Ganoderma species should also be broadened in the future. Within the Carpathian Basin, we have the possibility to isolate strains from 6 species beside G. lucidum: G. adspersum, G. applanatum (syn. G. lipsiense), G. carnosum (syn. G. atkinsonii), G. cupreolaccatum (G. pfeifferi), G. resinaceum and G. valesiacum. In the present review, by describing the taxonomical status and the ecological characteristic of the species, we depict the biological background of the medicinal potential, as well as the cultivation possibilities (both sporocarp production and liquid mycelia cultures) of these species.
Absorption method is shown to be suitable for direct determination of pure β-emitting, isotopes in samples containing more
than one β-emitter. This method consists of (1) measurement of the β-counting rate as a function of the thickness of the absorber
placed in between the sample and the β-detector and (2) decomposition of the complex absorption curve by computation in order
to obtain the contributions of the nuclides to the total counting rate one by one. The method is presented through two examples
of its practical application in the field of environmental radioanalysis:90Sr and147Pm isotopes were determined in aerosol samples contaminated by Chernobyl radioactivity and in hot particles of Chernobyl origin
using a simple end-window Geiger-Müller counter as a β-detector.
An activation analytical method has been developed for determining Cd, Ag, Sb, Se, Br by 14 MeV neutron-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy using Pr as an internal standard. A good correlation was obtained between the activity ratio, RAo and the weight ratio, RW. Results are given after correction for self-absorption and without correction. The results are comparable in both cases when dilution with H3BO3 (90%) is applied. The elements listed can be determined at minor concentrations (0.01%) with a relative error not more than ±5%.