A survey was carried out to determine terrestrial gammaradiation dose rates, the concentration level of 238U and 232Th and α and β activities for the surface soil in Ulu Tiram, Malaysia A 125 measurements were performed using a NaI(T1) gamma-ray
detector with crystal size of 1″ × 1″ on 15 soil samples collected from the site area about 102 km2238U and 232Th concentrations were determined in soils by using hyper pure germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity of α
and β from the surface soil was counted by using alpha beta counting system. The average value of 238U and 232Th concentrations in soil samples collected are 3.63±0.39 ppm within the range of 1.74±0.20 to 4.58±0.48 and 43.00±2.31 ppm
within the range of 10.68±0.76 to 82 10±4.01 ppm, respectively. The average estimate of α and β activity in soil samples collected
are 0.65±0.09 Bqg−1 and 0.68±0.08 Bqg−1, respectively. The average of terrestrial gamma-radiation dose rates measured in Ulu Tiram was found to be 200 nGy h−1, within the range of 96 to 409 nGy h−1. The population weighted outdoor annual effective dose was 1.2 mSv.
Authors:M. Rahman, A. Nishat, G. Rahman, H. Ruprecht, and H. Vacik
The study presents an analysis of spatial and structural diversity of Sal (
), the dominant species of sal forests in Bangladesh by using a neighbourhood analysis approach. The simple field method permits relatively unskilled persons to collect data. Most of the indices can be calculated in the field and the data analysis is comparatively easy. Therefore, the applicability of the method was tested by using different setting of reference trees compared with the full sampling for each plot in the Madhupur sal forests. The results indicate that a group of one reference tree and its four neighbours can be used efficiently to describe the spatial and structural diversity in homogeneous young forests at low costs and in short time. The indices can be easily interpreted allowing quantitative comparisons between different types of forest stands. Sal can be considered as the dominant and comparatively faster growing species than other associate species.
The elemental analysis of Pt-Re/alumina catalysts was carried out by nondestructive and bulk neutron activation analysis.
Samples were irradiated with a241Am-Be source-based as well as accelerator-based thermal neutrons and induced activities were measured by a HPGe detector with
a PC-based data acquisition and analysis system. An appropriate calibration technique was established for the determination
of the respective ratios of each element present in the catalysts. The technique proved to be useful for the determination
of low concentrations of Pt and Re in the catalyst samples.
A simple and sensitive method for the determination of some metalloids and heavy metals in water samples is presented. The
method is based on the preconcentration of the attachment of chelating functionalities with metalloids and toxic metals irreversibly
and targeted towards toxic metals adsorbed on modified activated carbon, activated carbon and red soil particles at pH 3.0–9.0±0.2,
followed by quantitative determination using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), on the absorbers. Attachment
results from attraction that may be physical, chemical, electrical, or a combination of all three. The efficient removal of
metalloids and toxic metals, especially arsenic, chromium and mercury is anticipated. The adsorption capacity of the chemically
modified activated carbon materials was evaluated for the above mentioned metalloid and toxic metal ions in the presence of
iron ions and simulated water samples. Red soil particles containing iron was utilized in the control of oxidation-reduction
reaction with metalloids and toxic metals. The preconcentration of the elements of interest on red soil particles, activated
carbon and modified activated carbon at different depths, pH and oxidation states was investigated. The results obtained showed
good agreement with certified values giving relative errors of less than 10%.
A new filtering column has been developed on the covalent attachment of chelating functionalities to simple, highly hydrophilic
adsorbent material, which can then complex heavy metal ions irreversibly and targeted towards toxic metals removal. The capacity
of the chemically modified sorbent (modified charcoal) materials used in this work was evaluated for the above mentioned heavy
metal ions in the presence of iron ions and simulated water samples. The methods are based on preconcentrations of the elements
of interest on activated carbon and zirconium loaded activated carbon using specific conditions of pH and oxidation states
followed by a final determination by neutron activation analysis (NAA). It has been investigated that zirconium loaded activated
carbon is able to adsorb As (V), Se (VI), Cr (VI) and Hg (II) at any pH while activated carbon is able to adsorb As (III),
Se (IV), Cr (III) and Hg(I) at higher pH.
Results are reported on lab-scale experiments on the removal of134Cs and60Co from liquid radioactive waste originating from Radioisotope Production Laboratory. Low cost and-simple nickel ferro-cyanide
precipitation was applied for the separation of radionuclides from low-level radioactive liquid waste. Using the optimal nickel
concentration of 0.75M and optimum cyanide concentration of 0.50M about 98% of the134Cs can be removed at an optimum pH of nearly 10. Furthermore, using the same method nearly 60% of60Co has been removed. The nickel ferrocyanide precipitation method could be used for removal of Cs from low level liquid waste.
Authors:S. Rahman, A. Wood, S. Sarmani, and A. Majid
The contents of mercury and organic mercury in various types of seafood from various location in Malaysia were determined by neutron activation analysis. Total mercury was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) whilst organic mercury was determined by INAA after chemical separation. Samples were digested in acid media and into the solution was added copper ion and KBr to release organic mercury compound from sulphur component of the tissue. The organic mercury was then extracted into toluene and then treated with cysteine paper to convert the compound into sub-organo-mercury from. The paper was then transferred into polyethylene vials and irradiated in the MINT TRIGA Reactor. Analytical results of organic mercury in Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta), Spanish mackerel (Scomberomurus commersoni), shrimp (Peneaus sp.), squid (Loligo sp.) and cockle (Anadara granosa) is in the range of 45%–94% of the total mercury.
Authors:N. Khalid, A. Rahman, S. Ahmad, A. Toheed, and J. Ahmed
Rice husk, an agricultural waste product, was studied as a potential decontaminant for chromium in the effluents of leather
tanning industries. Physico-chemical parameters such as selection of appropriate electrolyte, shaking time, concentration
of adsorbent and adsorbate were studied to optimize the best conditions in which this material can be utilized on commercial
scale for the decontamination of effluents. The radiotracer technique was used to determine the distribution of chromium.
In certain cases atomic absorption spectrophotometry was also employed. Maximum adsorption was observed at 0.01 mol·dm−3 acid solutions (HNO3, HCl, H2SO4 and HClO4) using 3.0 g of adsorbent for 2.73·10−3 mol·dm−3 chromium concentration in five minutes equilibration time. Studies show that the adsorption decreases with the increase in
the concentrations of all the acids. The adsorption data follows the Freundlich isotherm over the range of 2.73·10−3 to 2.73·10−2 mol·dm−3 chromium concentration. The characteristic Freundlich constants, i.e., 1/n=0.86±0.06 andA=2.35±0.06 mmol·g−1 have been computed for the sorption system. Thermodynamic parameters, i.e., ΔG0, ΔS0 and ΔH0 have also been calculated for the system. Application of the method to a test case of a medium size industry showed that
21 kg of rice husk was sufficient to maintain the NEQS limits of chromium for industrial effluents.