Let f: R→R be integrable in a neighbourhood of x∊R. If there are real numbers α0,α2,…,α2n−2 such that
exists for some δ>0 then the limit is called the 2n-th symmetric Laplace derivative at x. There is a corresponding definition of (2n+1)-th symmetric Laplace derivative. It is shown that this derivative is a generalization of the symmetric d.l.V.P. derivative. Some properties of this derivative are studied.
Simultaneous DTA-TG is an excellent technique for evaluating phases formed in hydrothermally treated CaO-SiO2-H2O and CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O systems. Thermal analysis in combination with XRD and SEM, revealed that in the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O system the amount of hydrogarnet formed was the largest when gibbsite was used as the Al source, smallest for kaolin and
intermediate for metakaolin. The endotherm peak temperature of the hydrogarnet dehydration endotherm was affected by the amount
of hydrogarnet and the Si content of hydrogarnet.
The thermal stability and structural order of 11 Å tobermorite were reduced with the incorporation of Al and, as a result,
11 Å tobermorite transformed into 9.3 Å tobermorite at lower temperatures while the transformation of the latter into beta-wollastonite
required more energy. There exists a direct relationship between the 9.3 Å tobermorite and beta-wollastonite formation temperatures.
Solid-state 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR data support these findings.
The effect of % methacrylic acid (%MAA), % neutralization (%N) and ion type (Na+ or Zn++) on the crystalline properties of neutralized ethylene-methacrylic acid copolymers (ionomers) were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Two endothermic melting peaks were observed for all the nine ionomers studied, the lower melting point (LMP) due to ordered ionic clusters and the higher melting point (HMP) due to polyethylene crystallites. Effects of %MAA, %N and ion type on LMP and HMP for as-received, aged and annealed samples are compared. Effect of types of pretreatments on LMP and HMP of ionomers at high and low %MAA contents for both ion types are discussed. Most of these results are explained from the point of view of crystalline morphology of ionomers.
Authors:S. Basavaraja, A. Venkataraman and Arabinda Ray
Partial dehydration of Dy2(SO4)3·8H2O was studied employing TG, DSC, D.C. electrical conductivity and spectroscopic techniques. The possible mechanism for the
loss of water molecules (partial dehydration) was found to be random nucleation obeying Mapel equation based on TG trace.
The DSC traces are supports the results of TG traces and are also utilized to understand the enthalpy changes accompanying
the partial dehydration and phase transition accompanying the dehydrated samples. D.C. electrical conductivity studies are
attempted to supplement these TG studies. Attempts are made to explain the structural changes accompanying dehydration on
the basis of infrared spectra and X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopic studies.
Summary The strength developments of hydrothermally cured blends comprised of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and clay-brick waste (CB) and treated at 180°C under saturated steam for 6 h were studied. Two types of CB, of different chemical and mineralogical make-up, were used to make OPC-CB blends where 10 to 80 mass% CB replaced OPC. The nature of the hydration products formed after autoclaving were subsequently investigated by using a combination of DTA, DTG, TG, X-ray diffraction, and wet chemical techniques. The modes of the hydrothermal reactions between OPC and the two types of CB, as well as the nature of the main binder belonging to the tobermorite family, are discussed and related to the development of the strength of the autoclaved articles.
A method for the separation of carrier-free vanadium from scandium and bulk amount of titanium has been developed. Vanadium has been produced through the reactionnatTi(d,n)48,49V with 8 MeV deuterons from the Variable Energy Cyclotron, Calcutta. The separation is performed with Dowex 1×8, 50–100 mesh fluoride from anion exchange resin which retains all the scandium and titanium with 4.5M hydrofluoric acid as eluent, while vanadium(V) is easily eluted. The chemical yield of vanadium was >85%.
Nickel sulphide (NiS) was characterised using X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis (TG) and differential scanning
calorimetry (DSC). The 'as received' Millerite, stoichiometric NiS, observed to be slightly nickel deficient, was found to
readily decompose in a nitrogen atmosphere at elevated temperatures (450C max.) to the sulphur deficient Godlevskite, Ni7S6. DSC and X-ray measurements demonstrated that the high temperature form of the Godlevskite was readily stabilised at room
temperature. The kinetics of the α-β re-transformation in Godlevskite were then investigated using DSC and were observed to
be first order.
The DSC characterisation of the morphology of the metastable a phase of stoichiometric nickel sulphide was carried out using
two calorimeters; a TA Instruments 2920 MDSC and a Perkin Elmer DSC-7, and two quenching histories. Based on these quenching
histories, significant differences were observed in the heat flow curves, including the observation of a second exothermic
peak which is tentatively assigned to be a metastable phase to metastable phase transformation. The kinetic constants for
the a to b recrystallisation were determined as a function of degree of conversion using a mechanism free isoconversional
model. Variations in the values of the kinetic constants were also ascribed to the quenching histories. Although the differences
in morphology observed were ascribed to the processing history, the shift in the position of the a to b recrystallisation
peak was partially attributed to the thermal resistances of the instruments used.