Near-infrared (NIR) spectrophotometers with different optical arrangements were used to measure the diffusely reflected electromagnetic radiation of different types of food additives in polyethylene (PE) foils. Eight compounds, frequently used in food process – but also in other industries –, were measured by different NIR spectrophotometers. The detected (‘as is’) and mathematically transformed (by scatter correction, second derivative combined with smoothing) NIR spectra were processed with multivariate data analysis (MDA). In this matter, unsupervised methods like principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used, which techniques do not require prior information and reference measurements. The aim of the present study was to distinguish food additives by the help of the applied chemometric methods based on NIR spectra detected via the PE foils. Results indicated that distinction of different food additives and compounds with NIR methods is possible not only with the conventional sample preparations and handlings, but also without breaking the packaging.
Soybean seeds were germinated on an industrial scale after soaking for 0–56 h to produce a special additive for food industrial use. The germination process of three soybean varieties was monitored with near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy based on changes in the amount, status, or character of the water. This paper evaluates the “waterless” NIR spectra of sound, germinated, and heat treated seeds to try to follow the fine details of the germination process. The germination process was analysed with the help of cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), and polar qualification system (PQS) as statistical and chemometric methods. PCA proved to be the most sensitive spectrum evaluation method to follow the fine details of germination. The applied NIR method is suitable for non-destructively, real-time monitoring of the non-linear nature of germination.
Resistant starches (RS) can be used in the food industry aiming to enhance the dietary fibre content and reduce the glycaemic response of food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the physical and chemical properties of different resistant starches (origin, type of resistance) and their comparison with native starches in pure form and in stoichiometric mixtures. Measurements were carried out to determine enzymatic digestibility, water absorption, thermogravimetric parameters (DSC), and viscometric characteristics (RVA) of resistant and native starches and their mixtures. Enzymatic digestibility and water absorption were reduced linearly by adding resistant starches into the mixtures. RVA parameters have shown non-proportional character in the stoichiometric mixtures. The results of DSC measurements proved that the gelatinisation of resistant starches is quite different and only chemically modified resistant starch was heat-sensitive. Results indicated that circumspect evaluation is needed in the selection of resistant starch products for the development and innovation of food products with reduced glycaemic response.
Resistant starches (RSs) are broadly investigated as appropriate additives in starch-based products due to their well-known and proved health benefits. However, it was shown in previous studies that these starches are sensitive of the different heat treatments used in the food processing, which can cause changes, especially in the resistance. There is an increasing trend to use microwave (MW) energy in food processing; therefore, our aim was to investigate the changes of RSs compared to native starches caused by MW heating. Maize, wheat, RS2 and RS4 starches were MW-treated according to a 2×2 experimental design (300 and 600 W of power, 30 and 150 s of time). The changes of in vitro digestibility, rheological properties (rapid visco analyser, RVA) and near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic characteristic were studied. Two spectrophotometers were applied (dispersive and Fourier-transform (FT)) to compare their sensitivity in the analysis of the MW-treated starches.Results showed that the digestibility of starches did not show any tendencies when increasing the microwave energy of treatments, the characteristics of the kinetic curves remained unchanged. The RVA analysis showed that the RSs did not gelatinize after the heat-treatments. The MW heating weakened the rheological properties of all starches. The NIR analysis was the most sensitive device for the detection of the effects of MW treatments. The analysis of the most characteristic carbohydrate regions (2080–2130 and 2270–2290 nm) highlighted structural alterations of the starches; moreover, the dispersive spectrophotometer was found to be more sensitive in the analysis of starches than the FT-one.
Effect of 60Co irradiation on wheat and white pepper grains were investigated in this study using Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA), near infrared reflectance spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Functional properties of wheat and white pepper were affected by irradiation indicated by a decrease in viscosity values. It was caused by changes of starch structure confirmed by the NIR spectra changes between wavelength 1560–1620 nm, which is the vibration of intermolecular hydrogen bonded OH groups in polysaccharides. The radiation used did not cause significant changes in the thermal properties. RVA proved to be useful for screening radiation induced changes in dry commodities of considerable large starch content on the basis of their rheological behaviour.