Scale up relations were obtained for the mixer of a box type mixer-settler used in an uranium extraction process from chloridric leaches. Three box type mixers of different sizes and with the same geometry were used for batch and continuous-flow experiments. The correlations between the extraction rate and the specific power input,D/T ratio(=turbine diameter/mixer width) and residence time were experimentally determined. The results showed that the extraction rate increases with the power input at a constantD/T ratio equal to 1/3, remaining however, independent from the mixer size for a specific value of the power input. This behaviour was observed for power input values ranging from 100 to 750 W/m3.
Authors:E. T. de Almeida, A. M. Santana, A. V. G. Netto, Claudia Torres, and A. E. Mauro
The synthesis, characterization and thermal analysis of the novel cyclometallated compounds [Pd2(dmba)2Cl2(μ-bpe)] (1), [Pd2(dmba)2(N3)2(μ-bpe)] (2), [Pd2(dmba)2(NCO)2(μ-bpe)] (3), [Pd2(dmba)2(SCN)2(μ-bpe)] (4), [Pd2(dmba)2(NO3)2(μ-bpe)] (5) (bpe=trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene; dmba=N,N-dimethylbenzylamine) are described. The thermal stability of [Pd2(dmba)2X2(μ-bpe)] complexes varies in the sequence 1>4>3>2>5. The final residues of the thermal decompositions were characterized as metallic palladium by X-ray powder diffraction.
Authors:A. Santana, A. Mauro, H. Zorel, M. Mattioli, and V. de Lucca Neto
The dimeric compound [Pd(bzan)(μ-OOCCH3)]2 (1) (bzan=N-benzylideneaniline) reacts with KX, in methanol/acetone (2:1), affording the analogous dimeric pseudohalogen-bridged species
[Pd(bzan)(μ-X)]2 [X=NCO(2),SCN(3), CN(4)]. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, NMR and thermogravimetric
analysis. IR data for 2–4 showed bands typical of coordinated pseudohalogen ligands clearly indicating the occurrence of the
exchange reaction. Their thermal behaviour was investigated and suggested that their stability is influenced by the bridging
ligand. The thermal stability decreased in the order[Pd(bzan)(μ-CN)]2>[Pd(bzan)(μ-SCN)]2>[Pd(bzan)(μ-OOCCH3)]2>[Pd(bzan)(μ-NCO)]2. X-ray results showed the formation of Pd as final decomposition product.
Authors:Patrícia Severino, Samantha C. Pinho, Eliana B. Souto, and Maria H. A. Santana
This study focuses on the physicochemical characterization of lipid materials useful for the production of the so-called solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). The chosen lipids were Dynasan®114 (glyceril trimyristate) and Dynasan®118 (glyceril tristearate) as solid lipids (SL), melting temperature above 80 °C, and Miglyol®812 (caprylic/capric triglyceride) and Miglyol®840 (propylene glycol dicaprylate/dicaprate) as liquid lipids (LL), crystallizing below −15 °C. Raw lipids (pure or SL:LL mixtures) were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), and Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM), before and after tempering at 80 °C for 1 h. The selected SL:LL combination was 70% (Dynasan®114 and 118) and 30% (Miglyol®812 and 840) for the production of SLN and NLC by high-pressure homogenization (HPH), respectively. Particles with a mean size of 200 nm (polydispersity index <0.329) and zeta potential of −15 mV were obtained, and their long-term stability was confirmed for 3 months of storage at 7 °C.
Authors:Ana Santos, I. Basílio, F. de Souza, A. Medeiros, Márcia Pinto, D. de Santana, and R. Macêdo
Thermal analysis is an essential analytical tool in development of new formulations as well as to study the interaction between
drugs and excipients. This work aims to investigate the possible interactions between metformin and excipients as microcrystalline
cellulose (Microcel MC101®), starch sodium glycolate (Explosol®), sodium croscarmellose (Explosel®), PVP K30, magnesium stearate,
starch and lactose, usually employed in pharmaceutical products. TG, DSC and DTA techniques were used for the thermal characterization
to track if the thermal properties of the drug substance were modified in the mixture. Disregard of the starch and lactose
systems, no changes in thermal behavior of mixtures were found. Thermogravimetric studies (TG) of metformin and its binary
mixtures showed different thermal behavior.
Authors:S. Leon-Cisneros, A. Quirola-Garcés, J. Alvarez-Santana, N. Barriga-Medina, D. Ramirez-Villacís, M. Caviedes, L. Ramirez-Cárdenas, and A. Leon-Reyes
Anthocyanins are plants metabolites that are recognized by its red/purple coloration produced in flowers, seeds and leaves. These molecules are potentially important to the industry for its antioxidant capacity, disease prevention and as a natural dye. Currently, the production of anthocyanins is carried out using in vitro culture of Vitis vinifera and its yield is increased by using elicitors or stress factors. Zea mays is relevant due to its high content of cyanidin-3-β-glucoside anthocyanin. In the present study the production of cyanidin-3-β-glucoside was evaluated with different mechanisms of elicitation using in vivo and in vitro culture of purple and white maize varieties. The highest callus induction (85%) for white maize was obtained in MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, while for purple maize (93%) was obtained in N6 medium with 2 mg/L of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, using germinated seed as explant for both varieties. Methyl jasmonate was evaluated as an elicitation tool, however no cyanidin-3-β-glucoside was found to be accumulated or produced in vitro. In contrast, using germinated seeds and radicle tissue, elicitation using phosphorus deficiency treatment produced the highest cyanidin-3-β-glucoside accumulation (0.06 mg g−1) in white maize. No elicitation and further production of anthocyanins was found when purple maize were used using this method. Therefore, in vivo elicitation in white maize is a potential method to produce a stable anthocyanin that could be optimized for future applications.
Authors:Ana P. Rodrigues, A. R. M. Holanda, G. P. Lustosa, S. M. B. Nóbrega, Willma J. Santana, Luciana B. S. Souza, and H. D. M. Coutinho
Serratia marcescens, a Gram-negative bacillus that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae, is a human opportunistic pathogen bacterium that causes many diseases, such as urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, bacteremia, conjunctivitis, endocarditis, meningitis and wound infections. Many plasmides that confers multi-drug resistance were discovered, such as virulence factors, like cytotoxins that damage epithelial cells. The main topic of this paper presents a review about the molecular traits evolved in the pathogenic processes mediated by Serratia and its mechanism of resistance to drugs.
Authors:J. Santana Romero, F. Martínez Luzardo, E. Codorniú Hernández, L. Vargas Guerra, P. Melo Cala, M. García Guillén, K. Isaac Olivé, P. Estevez, A. Roque Córdoba, and M. Benítez
Vegetable tannins are polyphenolic plants secondary metabolites, widely distributed in all parts of trees and herbs. The role of these substances in many metabolic processes is very important. Vegetable tannins have been implicated as probable antinutritional factors, decreasing the assimilation of diet protein assimilation by cattle. On the other hand, protective antioxidant and antimutagenic properties have been ascribed for these compounds. Characterization of vegetable tannins is important in order to find new sources of natural raw materials with medical and pharmaceutical applications. Protein precipitation capacity as a function of pH, competitive protein and ADN binding assays and the determination of tannins concentration are described. Radioisotope labeled protein and tannins were used in all of the determinations.