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In any breeding program, it is necessary to screen and identify phenotypically stable genotypes that could perform uniformly under different environmental conditions. Such a breeding effort requires basic information of genotype × environment (G × E) interaction. Twenty genotypes including hybrids and aromatic rice were evaluated in 8 environments in two production systems viz; System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and normal cultivation environments during kharif season (May–October) 2009. The experiment was laid down in RBD with two replications in a plot of 1 m2. Pooled analysis for G × E interaction and stability revealed that the genotypes and environments were highly significant (p < 0.01) for all twelve characters studied. The G × E interaction was significant for six traits including all key components of SRI except tillers no. Both linear and non-linear components contributed towards G × E interaction. Stability parameters identified genotypes PR-114 and HKR-47 as stable for grain yield per plant and HKR-127, HKR-120, CSR-30, Pusa-1121 and IR-64 for test grain weight. Genotypes identified suitable for favourable environments were HKR-126, HSD-1, PAU-201and Govind while for unfavourable environment were HSD-1, HKRH-1094, HKR-48 and PAU-201 for different traits. IR 64 and Pusa 1121 registered 24.31 and 12.54% increase in yield in SRI over normal production system. These genotypes need to be tested in macro environments over space and time and could be utilized for direct cultivation as well as for improvements of other cultivars.

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Durum wheat is a good source of protein. A grain protein content of 13% for durum is a standard in quality throughout the grain industry (Riley et al. 1998). Protein content like other traits in wheat is known to be affected by genetic and environmental factors mainly location (Bement et al. 2003). In this study we evaluated a set of 25 genotypes comprising introduction from CIMMYT and advanced lines developed through hybridization by the Ethiopian National Durum Wheat Research Project (NDWP) for protein content over six testing locations, representing the wheat agro-ecologies in the country. The experiments were conducted in a randomised complete block design (RBD) with three replications each. Plot size was kept at 2 m 2 . Grain protein content was analyzed following Kjeldahl method (A.A.C.C. 1983). Stability analysis was done according to Eberhart and Russel (1966) model and effect of locations and its interaction with genotypes were estimated following additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model. The mean grain protein content varied from 11.61 to 13.52% among the genotypes. Only three genotypes, namely CD98206, DZ3117 and DZ-04-118 attained higher grain protein content than standard 13.00%. Stability analysis revealed that all but three genotypes were observed to be predictable. DZ 2212-1BS was found suitable for favorable environments. Genotype CD97383 was found sensitive to change in environment. Eight genotypes were identified as stable. Genotypes DZ3117 was found to be the best having maximum protein content recorded at AlemTena location and higher yield with stable performance across locations. AMMI analysis revealed that the first two significant IPCA scores together explained 73.55% of the total interaction variance. Biplot graphical analysis showed Alem Tena as the best location followed by Debre Zeit and Minjar in terms of average protein content of genotypes. Genotype DZ1669-1AK scored zero and could be considered as stable and wide adaptable having protein content higher than the general mean. The graphical analysis of IPCA 1 and IPCA 2 further revealed that this genotype was relatively close to origin zero. Genotype DZ-04-118 was adapted to Debre Zeit and Minjar while a large numbers of genotypes with negative IPCA score were adapted to Akaki and Chefe Donsa locations. Genotype DZ3117 had specific adaptability to Alem Tena location. High protein but low grain yield at Alem Tena may be due to the drought occurrence during grain filling period.

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Abstract  

The phase transition of a fluid - in particular water - confined in the pores of silicon during drying is studied. The influence of this process on surface size and porosity is discussed. Methods of air drying, supercritical drying and freeze drying are considered.

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Abstract

Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) mean attractive heating and cooling systems. Optimum design of a borehole heat exchanger (BHE), as the outer part of a GSHP heating system, requires knowledge of the thermal properties of the soil. Those data, the effective thermal conductivity of the soil λeff and the average temperature of the soil T 0 enable us to determine the necessary number and depth of boreholes. The determination of thermal conductivity of the soil in laboratory experiments does not usually coincidence with the data under in situ conditions. Therefore, an in situ method of experimental determination of these parameters, thermal response testing (TRT) is used primarily for in situ determination of design data for BHEs. In this study, which was the first TRT in Algeria (Tlemcen site), the purpose was to determine the effective ground thermal conductivity. Measured data were evaluated by the line source model. Used method and performed evaluation are presented for a borehole drilled in clay, silt, and sand. The resulting effective ground thermal conductivity was 1.364 W/m K and the borehole thermal resistance was 0.18 K/(W/m).

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Abstract  

Some surface sediment samples, collected from 53 sampling sites of the Saros Gulf, were analyzed quantitatively by radioisotope energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Results indicated some correlations between Rb and Sr (r = 0.64), Fe2O3 and MnO (r = 0.59), Th and La (r = 0.71), Th and Ce (r = 0.64), Th and Sm (r = 0.60), concentration pairs. U and Th results are found to be compatible with those given in the literature for marine sediments.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: A. Fave, M. Bouchaour, A. Kaminski, S. Begrger, A. Ould-Abbas, and N. Chabane Sari

Abstract  

The fabrication of solar cells based on the transfer of a thin silicon film on a foreign substrate is an attractive way to realise cheap and efficient photovoltaic devices. The aim of this work is to realise a thin mono-crystalline silicon film on a double porous silicon layer in order to detach and transfer it on mullite. The first step is the fabrication of a double porous silicon layer by electrochemical anodisation using two different current densities. The low current leads to a low porosity layer and during annealing, the recrystallisation of this layer allows epitaxial growth. The second current leads to a high porosity which permits the transfer on to a low cost substrate. Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE) performed with indium (or In+Ga) in the temperature range of 950–1050C leads to almost homogeneous layers. Growth rate is about 0.35 μm min−1. Crystallinity of the grown epilayer is similar on porous silicon and on single crystal silicon. In this paper, we focus on the realisation of porous silicon sacrificial layer and subsequent LPE growth.

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Abstract

Porous silicon (PS) has received a great deal of attention due to its light emitting properties. This characteristic has led to a wide range of applications (optoelectronic devices, physical and chemical sensors, solar cells…). Indeed, this material is a good candidate for improving the ratio quality/price of solar cells. Its fabrication needs anodisation of single crystalline silicon in a mixture of HF/methanol solution. In order to simulate the different steps needed to “develop” the solar cells, PS layers (single or two layers) were subjected to different annealing. In this article, we discuss the influence of drying and annealing on the morphology of PS. SEM observations and gravimetric measurements are reported.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: S. Sareen, R. Munjal, N. Singh, B. Singh, R. Verma, B. Meena, J. Shoran, A. Sarial, and S. Singh

Terminal heat, which is referred as increase in temperature during grain filling, is one of the important stress factors for wheat production. Current estimates indicate that wheat crop grown on around 13.5mha in India is affected by heat stress. In order to meet the challenges of high temperature ahead of global warming, concerted efforts are needed to evaluate germplasm for heat tolerance and identify and develop genotypes suitable for such stressed environments. The advanced wheat genotypes developed for stress and normal environments by different research centers were evaluated across 7 locations representing varied agroclimatic zones during 2007–08 and 2008–09 to study their adaptability for heat stress and non-stress environments. The additive main effects and multiplicative interaction analysis for G × E interactions revealed differences amongst locations to phenology and grain yield. Genotype RAJ 4083 developed for cultivation under late sown conditions in peninsular zone was also found adaptable to timely sown conditions. Similarly, HD 2733 a cultivar of NEPZ timely sown conditions and PBW 574 an advanced breeding line of NWPZ late sown conditions was found adapted to Peninsular zone. The cultivar RAJ 3765 showed specific adaptability to Pantnagar in NWPZ. Genotype NW 3069 developed for NEPZ timely sown conditions have shown adaptability to number of locations; timely sown conditions at Karnal and Hisar in NWPZ and Niphad in PZ. Likewise, WH 1022 developed for NEPZ late sown conditions exhibited specific adaptability to all timely sown locations in NWPZ.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: G. Fürjes, G. Tóth, B. Peitl, R. Pórszász, B. Lelesz, R. Sári, A. Tóth, Z. Szilvássy, and J. Németh

Abstract  

In the present paper the development and application of a novel thrittene radioimmunoassay (RIA) are described. 125I-labeling of Tyr(0)-thrittene was performed by the iodogen-method and the mono-iodinated peptide, as RIA tracer, was separated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The RIA results show that the antiserum used in the radioimmunoassay turned to be C-terminal specific, without significant affinity to other members of the somatostatin peptide hormone family. Detection limit of the assay was 0.2 fmol/ml. This highly specific and sensitive thrittene RIA was used to investigate the distribution of thrittene in the rat gastrointestinal tract and other tissue samples. Different areas of the gastrointestinal tract and other tissues were removed from rats and after extraction the samples were processed for thrittene radioimmunoassay. Highest concentrations were found in the duodenum samples followed by jejunum and ileum, however, all the examined tissues contained highly enough thrittene for the measurement.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: S. Sareen, N. Bhusal, G. Singh, B.S. Tyagi, V. Tiwari, G.P. Singh, and A.K. Sarial

Heat stress is a matter of a great concern for the wheat crop. Heat stress usually either hastens crop development or shortens the grain filling duration, which severely reduces grain yield. Being a complex trait, understanding the genetics and gene interactions of stress tolerance are the two primary requirements for improving yield levels. Genetic analysis through generation mean analysis helps to find out the nature of gene actions involved in a concerned trait by providing an estimate of main gene effects (additive and dominance) along with their digenic interactions (additive × additive, additive × dominance, and dominance × dominance). In the present investigation, we elucidated the inheritance pattern of different yield contributing traits under heat stress using different cross combinations which could be helpful for selecting a suitable breeding strategy. Thus six generations of five crosses were sown normal (non-stress, TS) and late (heat stress, LS) in a randomized block design with three replications during two crop seasons. The model was not adequate for late sown conditions indicating the expression of epistatic genes under stress conditions. The traits i.e. Days to heading (DH), Days to anthesis (DA), Days to maturity (DM), Grain filling duration (GFD), Grain yield (GY), Thousand grain weight (TGW), Grain weight per spike (GWS) and Heat susceptibility index (HSI) under heat stress conditions were found under the control of additive gene action with dominance × dominance interaction, additive gene action with additive × dominance epistatic effect, dominance gene action with additive × additive interaction effect, additive and dominance gene action with dominance × dominance interaction effect, additive gene action with additive × dominance epistatic effect, additive gene action with additive × additive interaction effect and dominance gene action with additive × additive interaction effect, respectively.

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