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  • Author or Editor: A. Singh x
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The notions of semi C-reducible and S4-like Finsler spaces have been introduced by Matsumoto and Shibata ([6]). The object of the present paper is to study some properties of the hypersurfaces immersed in semi-C-reducible and S4-like Finsler spaces. It has been proved that a hypersurface of semi-C-reducible Finsler space is a semi-C-reducible while the condition, under with a hypersurface of S4-like Finsler space will be a S-4like space, has been obtained. The condition under which a hypersurface of semi-C-reducible Landsberg space will be a Landsberg space has also been obtained. After using the so called “T-condition” (Matsumoto [5]) we have discussed the condition under which a hypersurface of a semi-C-reducible Finsler spaceF n satisfying T-condition will also satisfy T-condition.

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Germinated brown rice received great attention as healthy ingredient and can be used as an alternative source in the malting and brewing industry. The germination capacity, physico-nutritional properties, sugars, and diastase enzyme activity of brown rice affected by germination times and temperature were determined and compared with control. Soaking in water increased the moisture content of brown rice. Germination rate of brown rice was also increased by higher germination time and temperature and reached maximum after 48 h of germination at 35 ºC. However, dry matter loss, grain weight, and density are affected to a lesser extent. Germination significantly (P<0.05) affects the crude protein, fat, fibre, and ash contents. Total carbohydrates content showed linear relationship with germination time and temperature. During germination, hydrolytic enzymes act on starch, reducing its concentration and resulting in higher total and reducing sugars amounts. Increase in germination time and temperature also increased diastase enzyme activity.

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Abstract  

Neutron activation analysis has been applied for determination of selenium in environmental and food samples. Food and environmental samples from city, industrial and agricultural zones were collected with utmost care. Samples were activated in the flux 1·1013 n·cm–2·s–1 in the CIRUS reactor of BARC, Bombay, 75-Se was separated from 6.5N HCl solution using ethyl--isonitrosoacetoacetate (HEINA) reagent. The decontamination studies showed the method is very selective. Selenium contents of wheat, rice, vegetables, cereals pulses etc. and of soil, water, and deposits on plants and surface were determined by the procedure developed.

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Abstract  

There has been an increasing awareness conceming the adequacy of trace elements in diet as their deficiency or excess may cause abnormal changes in the biochemical processes. Typical Indian vegetarian diet and dietary components such as cereals, grains, pulses, vegetables and spices have been analysed for 19 elements (Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Th and Zn) by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Several Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were analysed for quality assurance. Based on the elemental contents, the daily dietary intake has been calculated and the data compared with those from other countries, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and permissible body burden. It has been observed that, although vegetarian, the Indian diet has an adequate content of essential trace elements compared to non-vegetarian oriental (Japan and Taiwan) and western (Germany, Denmark and USA) diets.

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The High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunits (HMW GS) in bread wheat landraces were studied using the SDS-PAGE technique. Out of the 32 landraces, 23 were homogeneous while nine showed heterogeneity with respect to the HMW glutenin subunits. Novel variants were observed in HMW GS in four of the landraces. One novel subunit coded by the Glu-B1x locus and two novel subunit pairs at the Glu-D1 locus were identified. A modified system of nomenclature over that of Payne and Lawrence (1983) is suggested for numbering the new subunits. Accordingly, the novel subunits are numbered as 7 1 ( Glu-B1x ) and 2+12 2 ; 5 1 +12 2 ; 5 2 +12 3 and 5 3 +12 3 ( Glu-D1x + y ) and the allelic designations are given as Glu-B1 bh for 7 1 +9; Glu-D1bp for 2+12 2 . Glu-D1bq for 5 1 +12; Glu-D1br for 5 1 +12 2 ; GluD1br for 5 2 +12 3 and GluD1bt for 5 3 +12 3 .

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Abstract

Brown rice was germinated for different times (12, 24, 36, and 48 h) at different temperatures (25, 30, and 35 °C) with the aim to improve the in vitro digestibility and antioxidant potential of the flour made from it. Results showed that increase in germination time and temperature increased in vitro digestibility of starch and protein during germination of brown rice owing to depolymerisation of starch and protein molecules by enzymatic activity. After germination under varying conditions, antioxidant activity increased from 50.19 to 95.58%, total phenolic and flavonoid contents from 0.88 to 2.02 mg GAE/g and 34.06–62.94 mg QE/100g, respectively. Germination at elevated temperature (35 °C) for prolonged time (48 h) also increased the reducing power by 60.49% and metal chelating activity by 114.50% as a result of structural breakdown of bound phenolics. Increased activity of hydrolytic enzymes with progress in the germination time and temperature also results in continuous reduction in the pasting properties and lightness values (L), while increasing a* and b* values of the flour of germinated brown rice. Tailored germination, therefore, can be offered as a tool to increase nutrient digestibility and bioactive potential of brown rice as compared to non-germinated brown rice, thus, producing naturally modified flour with enhanced functionality.

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Ninety-nine wheat cultivars from six different agro-climatic zones of India were analyzed for the Vrn-1, Vrn-2, Vrn-B3, Vrn-4 and Ppd-D1 composition with DNA sequenced based allele specific or linked markers for the above-mentioned genes. A majority of the germplasm carried the dominant Vrn-A1a allele alone or in combination with Vrn-B1 and Vrn-D1. The three dominant genes were cumulatively present in 30 cultivars among all the zones, whereas double dominant combination, Vrn- A1/Vrn-B1 was identified in 18 cultivars, Vrn-A1/Vrn-D1 in 6 cvs and Vrn-B1/Vrn-D1 in 16 cvs. The combination of the dominant alleles of all three genes was most frequent in cvs of Northern Western Plains Zone. Northern Hill Zone had vrn-B1 and vrn-D1 alleles in higher proportions compared to the dominant alleles Vrn-B1 and Vrn-D1 indicating successful spring/winter wheat cross breeding. All of the cvs had the recessive Vrn-B3 allele. Most of the cvs had photoperiod insensitive allele in all the zones and only 9% cvs possessed the photoperiod sensitive allele (b) of the Ppd-D1 gene. This information will be useful in selecting parental lines for crossing to maximize diversity at these loci and for future molecular marker assisted breeding for cultivar improvement.

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The application of ultrasound during extraction of oil from apricot kernels using hexane was evaluated and compared with conventional methods (mechanical extraction and Soxhlet extraction). Results show that ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) yields more oil with less solvent consumption. The oil yield from UAE, SE, and ME were 44.72%, 44.33%, and 35.06%, respectively. It is noteworthy that it took 44 min to extract oil by UAE method, while alike yield was obtained from SE in 6 hours. Oil extracted by UAE exhibited significantly higher peroxide and ester values. The functional groups of apricot kernel oil were analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Untreated and treated kernel powders were studied by scanning electron microscopy, and the development of microstructures and disruption of cell walls were evaluated. Our study suggests that ultrasound assisted extraction may be an effective method to extract edible oils by achieving higher efficiency in shorter extraction time.

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