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  • Author or Editor: A. Singh x
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The notions of semi C-reducible and S4-like Finsler spaces have been introduced by Matsumoto and Shibata ([6]). The object of the present paper is to study some properties of the hypersurfaces immersed in semi-C-reducible and S4-like Finsler spaces. It has been proved that a hypersurface of semi-C-reducible Finsler space is a semi-C-reducible while the condition, under with a hypersurface of S4-like Finsler space will be a S-4like space, has been obtained. The condition under which a hypersurface of semi-C-reducible Landsberg space will be a Landsberg space has also been obtained. After using the so called “T-condition” (Matsumoto [5]) we have discussed the condition under which a hypersurface of a semi-C-reducible Finsler spaceF n satisfying T-condition will also satisfy T-condition.

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Neutron activation analysis has been applied for determination of selenium in environmental and food samples. Food and environmental samples from city, industrial and agricultural zones were collected with utmost care. Samples were activated in the flux 1·1013 n·cm–2·s–1 in the CIRUS reactor of BARC, Bombay, 75-Se was separated from 6.5N HCl solution using ethyl--isonitrosoacetoacetate (HEINA) reagent. The decontamination studies showed the method is very selective. Selenium contents of wheat, rice, vegetables, cereals pulses etc. and of soil, water, and deposits on plants and surface were determined by the procedure developed.

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There has been an increasing awareness conceming the adequacy of trace elements in diet as their deficiency or excess may cause abnormal changes in the biochemical processes. Typical Indian vegetarian diet and dietary components such as cereals, grains, pulses, vegetables and spices have been analysed for 19 elements (Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Th and Zn) by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Several Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were analysed for quality assurance. Based on the elemental contents, the daily dietary intake has been calculated and the data compared with those from other countries, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and permissible body burden. It has been observed that, although vegetarian, the Indian diet has an adequate content of essential trace elements compared to non-vegetarian oriental (Japan and Taiwan) and western (Germany, Denmark and USA) diets.

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Germinated brown rice received great attention as healthy ingredient and can be used as an alternative source in the malting and brewing industry. The germination capacity, physico-nutritional properties, sugars, and diastase enzyme activity of brown rice affected by germination times and temperature were determined and compared with control. Soaking in water increased the moisture content of brown rice. Germination rate of brown rice was also increased by higher germination time and temperature and reached maximum after 48 h of germination at 35 ºC. However, dry matter loss, grain weight, and density are affected to a lesser extent. Germination significantly (P<0.05) affects the crude protein, fat, fibre, and ash contents. Total carbohydrates content showed linear relationship with germination time and temperature. During germination, hydrolytic enzymes act on starch, reducing its concentration and resulting in higher total and reducing sugars amounts. Increase in germination time and temperature also increased diastase enzyme activity.

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The High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunits (HMW GS) in bread wheat landraces were studied using the SDS-PAGE technique. Out of the 32 landraces, 23 were homogeneous while nine showed heterogeneity with respect to the HMW glutenin subunits. Novel variants were observed in HMW GS in four of the landraces. One novel subunit coded by the Glu-B1x locus and two novel subunit pairs at the Glu-D1 locus were identified. A modified system of nomenclature over that of Payne and Lawrence (1983) is suggested for numbering the new subunits. Accordingly, the novel subunits are numbered as 7 1 ( Glu-B1x ) and 2+12 2 ; 5 1 +12 2 ; 5 2 +12 3 and 5 3 +12 3 ( Glu-D1x + y ) and the allelic designations are given as Glu-B1 bh for 7 1 +9; Glu-D1bp for 2+12 2 . Glu-D1bq for 5 1 +12; Glu-D1br for 5 1 +12 2 ; GluD1br for 5 2 +12 3 and GluD1bt for 5 3 +12 3 .

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Floral anatomy of Actinomeris squarrosaand Bidens biternatahave been described. The presence of pappus is an important structural feature of the Asteraceae. It has been considered by some as phyllome and by others a trichome structure. The presence of vascular supply to the pappus scales shows that it is a phyllome structure. Once the pappus is considered as a phyllome structure, two major lines of specialization can be established in this family from a primitive type of five vascular scales. In ome line of evolution there has been increase in the number of pappus from five to twenty and finally indefinite in number and the vascular supply is totally suppressed. In another line of evolution there has been a reduction in the number of pappus scales from five to two and finally total reduction of the scales. The disc-florets of Bidens biternataare pentamerous but occasionally tetramerous florets are also observed. In Actinomeris squarrosa disc-florets are tetramerous florets are derived from pentamerous floret by complete fusion of the two anterior alternipetalous strands is discussed. In the Asteraceae, the pistillate ray florets are derived from disc florets by formation of a deep sinus in the corolla on the posterior side, followed by gradual suppression of the androecium. The neutral ray-florets are derived from ray-florets by complete reduction of an ovule, loculus and style along with its vascular supply is also discussed.

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Authors: A. Ramesh Babu and Y. Singh

Abstract  

Earlier researchers like Turkeli, suggested that ‘the factors which determine the productivity of scientists are admittedly complex and perhaps not amenable to real scientific analysis′. The present investigation was designed with the sole purpose of confronting such a complex problem. Nearly 200 variables influencing research productivity were collected through relevant literature, analysis of biographies of great scientists, and discussion with eminent scientists. Finally, through a critical examination, 80 variables were selected for the use of Q-sort technique. The sample for the study consisted of a cross section of scientists ranging from Fellows of Indian National Science Academy to young agricultural scientists. Mailed questionnaires and personal interview methods were used for collecting data. Out of a total of 912 respondents, reply was obtained from 325. On the basis of Q-sorted data, 26 variables were selected for further analysis and they were subjected to principal component factor analysis. The results indicated eleven factors affecting research productivity of scientists. They were: persistence, resource adequacy, access to literature, initiative, intelligence, creativity, learning capability, stimulative leadership, concern for advancement, external orientation, and professional commitment.

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The present report is in continuation to our earlier reports on the identification and fine mapping of three aroma QTLs in basmati rice using a bi-parental mapping population derived from a cross between Pusa 1121, a basmati rice variety, and Pusa 1342, a non-aromatic rice variety. We used a combination of genetic mapping and transcriptome profiling to narrow down the number of differentially expressed genes in rice to identify potential candidate genes for rice grain aroma. Highly aromatic and non-aromatic recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were identified through sensory analysis of mature milled grains. RILs with similar phenotypes were bulked together using bulk segregant analysis approach which drastically reduced the number of differentially expressed genes from 4016 to 1344. The transcriptome profiles generated were analyzed through Affymetrix rice genome array containing probe sets designed from all the predicted rice gene sequences. Microarray-based transcriptome profiling revealed one down-regulated gene co-located in QTL region aro3.1 on chromosome 3, eight genes co-located in the aro4.1 region on chromosome 4 and the badh2 gene on chromosome 8 to be differentially expressed in the aromatic parent and aromatic bulk. These genes are the most suitable candidates for future validation and development of new molecular functional markers to facilitate marker assisted breeding.

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Summary

A new, specific, sensitive, selective, precise, and reproducible high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been established for study of the stability of 3-acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA). HPTLC was performed on aluminium foil plates coated with 200 μm silica gel 60F254. Linear ascending development with toluene-ethyl acetate 7:3 (v/v) was performed at room temperature (25 ± 2°C) in a twin-trough glass chamber saturated with mobile phase vapour. Compact bands (R F 0.52 ± 0.02) were obtained for AKBA. Spectrodensitometric scanning was performed in absorbance mode at 250 nm. Linear regression analysis of the calibration plots showed there was a good linear relationship (r 2 = 0.9989 ± 0.0002) between peak area and concentration in the range 200–1200 ng band−1. The method was validated for precision, recovery, robustness, specificity, and detection and quantification limits, in accordance with ICH guidelines. The limits of detection and quantification were 3.06 and 9.29 ng band−1, respectively. The recovery of the method was 99.35–100.21%. AKBA was subjected to various stress test conditions — acid and alkali hydrolysis, oxidation, photodegradation, and dry and wet heat treatment. Degradation products were well resolved from the pure drug with significantly different R F values. Statistical analysis showed the method could be successfully applied for the estimation of AKBA in herbal extract and in nanoparticles. Because the method could effectively separate the drug from its degradation products, it can be regarded as stability-indicating.

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