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Abstract

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that significantly impacts various aspects of life, including school, work, family, and social relationships. The disorder has a prevalence of 6–7% in children and 4–5% in adults and commonly manifests before the age of 12. Symptoms can be categorised into two groups: attention deficit; and hyperactivity/impulsivity. As individuals age, hyperactivity symptoms generally decrease, while attention deficit symptoms exhibit less change. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is associated with numerous adverse outcomes, such as comorbid psychiatric disorders, academic difficulties, accidents, injuries, and increased economic burdens on society and individuals. Children and adults with ADHD have a high rate of psychiatric comorbidity, including learning disorders, autism spectrum disorder, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, tic disorders, adolescent substance abuse, and antisocial personality disorder in adulthood. Timely detection, enhanced intervention strategies, and consistent care may alleviate the clinical and economic burden of ADHD.

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Hypertension is an increasing public health problem all over the world. Essential hypertension accounts for more than 90% of cases of hypertension. It is a complex genetic, environmental and demographic trait. New method in molecular biology has been proposed a number of candidate genes, but the linkage or association with hypertension has been problematic (lack of gene-gene and gene-environment interaction). It is well known that genetic influences are more important in younger hypertensives, because children are relatively free from the common environmental factors contributing to essential hypertension. The association studies compare genotype ferquencies of the candidate gene between patient groups and the controls, in pathways known to be involved in blood pressure regulation.This study examined three polymorphisms of these factors encoding genes (ET-1 G+5665T (Lys198Asn), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) T-786C promoter polymorphism and 27-bp repeat polymorphism in intron 4) in adolescents with juvenile essential and obesity-associated hypertension.Significant differences were found in the G/T genotype of the ET-1 polymorphism in the hypertensive and obese+hypertensive patients (body mass index (BMI)>30). A strong association was detected between the BMI and the polymorphism of the ET-1 gene. It seems that ET-1 gene polymorphism plays a role in the development of juvenile hypertension associated with obesity. Although no significant differences were seen in the case of the eNOS promoter polymorphism and the eNOS 4th intron 27-bp repeat polymorphism. It seems that eNOS may play a role, but this is not the main factor in the control of blood pressure; it is rather a fine regulator in this process.This study with adolescents facilitates an understanding of the genetic factors promoting juvenile hypertension and obesity.

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International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Authors:
I. Fazekas
,
Gy. Szabó
,
Sz. Szabó
,
M. Paládi
,
G. Szabó
,
T. Buday
,
Z. Túri
, and
A. Kerényi

Abstract

The aim of our report is to refer on the actual state of small biogas power plants in Hungary summarising the increase in their number and capacity and their effects on climatic change. The above is based on the CO2 emission of the energetic utilization of biogas and the calculation of its ecological footprint that were compared to the environmental effects of natural gas energetic utilization. The aim of this paper does not include the complete life cycle analysis therefore the environmental benefits of the energetic utilization of biogas produced from various raw material are presented via only the direct CO2 emission of the production process.

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