The content of potentially antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and antiallergic flavonoid aglycons, quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, apigenin and luteolin of 45 fruits were determined by RP-HPLC with UV detection. Fresh and dried fruits were purchased in the local markets in Budapest at a period of their most frequent consumption. Total flavonoid content of fruits varied between 0–1000 mg kg –1, the average concentration was about 30 mg kg –1 fresh weight. Quercetin could be detected in most fruits, namely in apples, pear, plums, sweet and sour cherry and berries between 10–53 mg kg –1. Luteolin at a concentration of 20 mg kg –1 was found in melons, apples, kiwi and lemon. Myricetin was in detectable amount in redcurrant, and at very high concentration in some berry fruits (mulberry 453 mg kg –1, raspberry 540 mg kg –1, blackberry 636 mg kg –1, strawberry 994 mg kg –1), and in walnut (4565 mg kg –1). Kaempferol and apigenin were not found in the fruits investigated. None of the five flavonoids was found in some variety of grapes, in peach, pear, banana, orange, grapefruit and tangerine, in nuts such as almond, pistachio, nuts, and in dried fruits such as raisin, date, fig and prunes. These data provide a basis for the evaluation of the average daily intake of Hungarian population and for an epidemiological evaluation of health-promoting effects of flavonoids. __
This study presents the examination of the leadership in a multi-national company in Debrecen, in which we examine the relationship between lean and leadership. We identified the competitiveness within a kaizen implementation of the company's moderators with the help of a questionnaire. With help of the identified management competencies we determine the leadership style, which is necessary for the operation of a successful and effective lean management.
Successful applications of toxins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains in Bt-based bioinsecticides and more recently in Bt-plants in crop protection have enhanced the importance of analytical quantification of Cry toxin dosages for studies on various topics including environmental risk assessment (ERA), resistance management, quality control and regulatory compliance. It is essential to follow-up distribution and environmental degradation of these lectin type, crystalline (Cry) toxin proteins showing insect specificity at order level. Thus, Cry1Ab toxin produced by Bt-maize of genetic event MON 810 is specific to lepidopteran species. Widely used analytical methods for detection of Cry toxins are enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) systems. Reported Cry1Ab toxin concentrations in MON 810 maize show high variability: order of magnitude differences have been observed among various plant parts from different varieties, cultivated at different locations, and sometimes even within the same plant variety at a single location. Besides biological sources of variability, numerous analytical problems have been identified and are reported in this report, influencing the results of quantitative determination of Cry1Ab toxin and explaining the high variability among documented data on toxin content. Conclusions in every case refer to genetic event MON 810, but can be extended to other genetic events producing Cry1Ab toxin.
Reliable determination of microbial or transgenic Cry toxins is an essential issue in food and feed analyses, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are the method of choice for quantifying these toxins currently in food and environmental analysis. Internal Quality Control (IQC) is an indispensable method to assess accuracy, precision, and reproducibility of analytical measurements. To assess the utility of the ELISA method, IQC was performed on EnviroLogix Cry1Ab/Cry1Ac QualiPlate ELISA with manufacturer supplied analytical standards. Applicability of negative and positive controls (C− and C+) was examined by Shewhart Control Charts for bias and Control Chart of the Range of Duplicates for precision. Linear regression (up to 5 ng ml−1 Cry1Ab concentration) of the commercial ELISA kit was compared to sigmoid calibration (up to 60 ng ml−1 Cry1Ab concentration). For immunoassay optimization process, possible matrix effects in different liquid and solid vertebrate tissues were examined by determination of the limit of detection values in these matrices.
Epipactis albensis Nováková et Rydlo (Orchidaceae), a species previously undocumented in the flora of Ukraine, was found in three localities in this country (in vicinity of Chetfalva, Fanchykovo and Drotyntsi, Zakarpattia district) in 2012. The species (originally described from the Czech Republic) recently has only been known to exist in seven Central European countries. The three Ukrainian populations described here stretch within the floodplain of river Tisza. Based on measurements in 14 localities in Hungary, Ukraine and Romania the species has a considerably wide soil reaction tolerance (from 3.6 to 7.2 pHKCl). The fruit set of this strictly autogamous species is reasonably high (78%). The mean±SD thousand seed weight of the species was 0.0030±0.0005 grams, therefore E. albenis is classified into the hypermeichor seed-weight class. Recent discoveries of the species in Romania and Ukraine raise the possibility of its occurrence in further European countries.
(AM) fungi are obligatory biotrophic symbionts living in the roots of most
terrestrial plants. AM fungi (AMF) have a positive effect on plant growth and
plant nutrition, especially under stress conditions. The aim of the present study was to observe
the relationship between the mycorrhizal dependency and nutrient uptake of host
plants and the rate of AMF colonization in a pot experiment. The degree of host
growth responses to AMF colonization is expressed as mycorrhizal dependency
(MD). The pot trial was set up with a
sterilized calcareous chernozem soil from Nagyhörcsök (Hungary) in a growth
chamber under controlled climatic conditions. Tomato
L.) plants were inoculated with
(BEG12) strains and a
AMF culture produced by
authors. The dry biomass production, the micro- and macronutrient
concentrations of the shoots and the parameters of the mycorrhizal infection
were determined. Each AM fungi species or isolate caused different and
distinct changes in host plant growth and nutrient uptake. The biomass
production of tomato increased significantly in the presence of AM symbiosis.
The mean values of MD, calculated from shoot dry matter, varied between 36% and
55%. Mycorrhizal inoculation improved the P, N and K uptake of tomato. The
highest values for root colonization, frequency of infection or arbuscular
richness were found in the root of tomato inoculated with the two
strains. The highest MD and nutrient contents appeared in the shoot
of tomato treated withour
strain, which may
indicate a stronger affinity (compatibility) between the symbiotic partners.
The results confirmed that the selected AMF strains are applicable in
The aim of our study was to investigate the susceptibility of some Chenopodium species (Chenopodium album, C. glaucum, C. berlandieri, C. ugandae) to six viruses (Alfalfa mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Obuda pepper virus, Potato virus Y, Sowbane mosaic virus, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus). Fourteen plants of each species were mechanically inoculated and virus susceptibility was evaluated on the basis of symptoms and back inoculation. A series of new host-virus relations were determined.
In this review results are summarized
regarding the effect of virus infection on the physiological processes of
weeds. Through several host-virus model relations the biomass and
seed production, seed viability and germination, nutrient uptake,
drought-resistance and photosynthetic pigment content of healthy and virus
infected plants were compared. Because of their broad host range and high
genetic variability viruses cannot be used for biological weed control. It was
concluded that viruses unfavourably can influence physiological processes of
weeds. Therefore, they may contribute indirectly to the reduction of
competitive ability and population of weeds.
It has been proved that because of the different past of the parcels regarding their soil, agronomical and technological parameters, weed sampling results may not be generalised. Therefore it is necessary to study those solutions how to determine on an acceptable confidence level a parcel’s weed infestation with optimised sampling techniques.For studying the question we have delimited on wheat stubble a total sample area of 36×54 metres (using it as reference) and divided it into 2×2 cells giving a total of 486 sample cells. Then we surveyed the weed infestation and GPS recorded the location of each cell.We have analysed the weed infestation data with mathematical and statistical methods comparing the results of cells with each other and with the total sample area. We found that in several cases of different sample cells weed infestation displayed a diverse picture. This way sampling of weeds is extremely difficult.We found close relation between relative frequency of weeds and sampling accuracy. Therefore sampling is reliable only for surveying the frequent weeds in a parcel, while more rarely found weeds (e.g. spots of perennials) are to be scouted only by means of going over the parcel and GPS recording them. Otherwise, in the case of a traditional sampling process, the number of sampling cells required for acceptable reliability is unnecessarily high.Consequently, it is necessary to further study the economic and cost efficiency aspects of the needed weed sample density from the point of view of reasonable sample density, accuracy and optimal yield.