Sustainable nutrition (SN) considers the environmental impact of food production. This study aims to analyse the relationship between nutrient density and water footprint (WF) of the most consumed food items in Hungary and to create a classification of nutrients. Based on a comprehensive analysis of literature and different data sources, the authors analysed the stochastic relationship between WF and nutrient density of different food items by Spearman's rank correlation. The analysis proved significant (P<0.05) relationship between nutrient density and WF of the most relevant food items in Hungary. Based on the classification, there are nutrients that are overconsumed among the Hungarian population and positively correlate with WF (e.g., cholesterol) and there are nutrients that are under-consumed among the Hungarian population and negatively correlate with WF (e.g., dietary fibres). In general, it can be concluded that the re-structuration of food consumption patterns in Hungary is an important and urgent task, which serves both the public health and ecologic goals. These efforts should be based on a complex evaluation of the problem. This study was one initial step to analyse SN focused on Hungary and further studies are definitely needed.
The contribution of food production to the environmental burden is considerable, therefore, numerous countries have been trying to create a sustainable food supply chain to ensure food and nutrition security. The scope of this study was to analyse the association between water footprint and healthiness based on dietary records. Furthermore, it was aimed to create a classification of integrative dietary indicators of sustainable nutrition. With these methodological aims, the dietary records of 25 healthy adults were assessed. The dietary quality scores and dietary water footprint were calculated and Spearman's rank correlation was tested between them. The indicator nutrients were classified based on their advantageous or disadvantageous health impact and association with water footprint. There was a significant positive correlation between the meat consumption and water footprint, while significant negative correlations were found between the dietary quality score and water footprint and dietary quality score and meat consumption (P < 0.05). Protein, energy, sodium, and saturated fatty acids as integrated indicator nutrients could be identified for both dietary quality and water footprint. The improvement in dietary quality could simultaneously decrease the dietary water footprint. The integration of environmental impact into the analysis of diets could be the future direction in the counseling practice of nutritionists.
A considerable number of patients arriving in dental offices are being treated with ongoing medication for a variety of chronic diseases. As a result, dentists must be familiar with the potential side effects these therapeutic agents may have on the tissues of the oral cavity, and in particular on the salivary gland. Salivary gland function may be altered by a wide range of medications, leading to effects such as xerostomia, hyposalivation, hypersalivation or even swelling of the glands. These disorders can cause a variety of other health complications. This review will focus on the most common groups of drugs responsible for salivary gland dysfunction, including psychoactive drugs, antidepressants, antipsychotics, antihypertensives, and antihistamines.
The dinitramide salts of ammonia (ADN), hexamethylenetetramine (HDN), potassium (KDN), and sodium (NaDN) showed a linear relationship between the DSC rate of decomposition at the peak maximum and the DEA tanδ value at the low temperature transition peak. As the cation basicity increased in the series ADN<HDN<KDN<NaDN, there was an increase in the low temperature transition peak, the energy barrier for relaxation, and the decomposition peak temperature, and a decrease in the tanδ value at the low temperature transition peak, specific heat capacity, and the rate and enthalpy of decomposition. The more basic salts were more thermally stable (i.e., higher decomposition temperature) and less energetic (i.e., lower enthalpy of decomposition). The more internal free volume (disorder) present in these salts, the higher the rates of relaxation and decomposition. Five aluminum powders of different surface areas were analyzed by DSC in platinum sample pans, and it was found that the enthalpy and rate of oxidation increased as the particle size of Al decreased while the enthalpy of the Al melt decreased. TG showed a two-step weight gain in the oxidation of Al with plateaus in the 650 and 1130°C regions and the percent weight gain increased as the particle size of Al decreased. Variable DSC and TG heating rate studies showed that the activation energies for the first step in the oxidation process increased as the particle size of Al increased.
The complexes [Zn(1-propyltetraole)6](BF4)2 (Zn-ptz) and [Fe(methyltetrazole)6](BF4)2 (Fe-mtz) were investigated by positron annihilation and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. For Zn-ptz signs of structural rearrangements were found between 70 and 145 K. For the spin-crossover complex Fe-mtz a transition affecting the high-spin stat Fe2+ ions at lattice site B occurs below 15 K.
Our work proves that positron annihilation spectroscopy is an excellent tool to follow the structural changes in chemical
species. We present four examples to support the above statement. The sizes of defects in electrodeposited chromium layers
were studied and estimated on the basis of positron lifetime spectra decomposed into two components. Vacancies, di-vacancies
and vacancy-clusters could be identified in the electrodeposites. The changes of the size distribution of the free volume
units in poly(methylmetacrylate) on the dependence of molecular weight and dispersity were described by the correlation between
the lifetime ofortho-Ps and the free volume units in polymers. It was found that the free volume is affected by both the molecular weight and
dispersity. The effect of dispersity was explained by the sample preparation technique, namely by the application of high
pressure. The ortho-para conversion ofortho-Ps was used to follow the partial spin-crossover in [Fe(1-ethyl-1H-tetrazole)6](BF4)2. The spin-crossover temperature was identified to be 105 K. A conformal structural transformation was found in [Zn(1-propyl-1H-tetrazole)6](BF4)2 between 170 and 90 K by positronium lifetime measurement and the role of (BF4)2− anion, in this transformation, was proved by19F NMR spectroscopy.