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A total of 123 isolates of Phytophthora infestans were recovered from 43 commercial fields and allotments of potato and tomato in Hungary. Isolates were characterised for mating type, response to metalaxyl, isozyme genotype at glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (Gpi) and peptidase A (Pep) loci, nuclear DNA fingerprint with probe RG57 and mitochondrial haplotype. Both mating types were detected in 8 potato and 3 tomato fields. The frequency of A1 and A2 were 47.5% and 52.5% on potato and 60.5% and 39.5% on tomato. More than sixty per cent of the whole population were resistant (31.1%) or responded intermediately (30.2%) to the fungicide metalaxyl in vitro. All isolates were monomorphic at the Gpi locus (100/100), but four allele combinations 100/100 (33%), 96/100 (28%), 96/96 (31%) and 83/96 (8%) were found at the Pep locus. Genotype Pep 83/96 is rare in Europe and all isolates with this allele combination were of A1 mating type and Ia mitochondrial haplotype. As in other European populations, only two of the four mitochondrial haplotypes (Ia, 32.5% and IIa, 67.5%) were detected. Diversity of RG57 fingerprints was high. Of the 79 different fingerprints found 67 were not detected previously.

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Abstract

Number of people over 65 years is continuously increasing and represents an ever growing proportion of population even in Hungary. Medical treatment of the elderly implies a massive burden for the healthcare system. Special knowledge is required to provide an appropriate medical care for the elderly. During the ageing process, several changes accumulate in the body and several chronic diseases develop. Function of parenchymal organs is impaired, healing process is slower, clinical manifestations of diseases are not so prominent, the diagnosis is often difficult to establish. Moreover, treatment possibilities also differ, because pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs are different from that of young patients. Communication with older patients is also cumbersome, participation of a relative or caregiver at consultation can be useful. Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of death of adults over the age of 65. Among these diseases congestive heart failure, coronary artery diseases, hypertension, atrial fibrillation have the greatest significance.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors:
E. Milinki
,
Sz. Molnár
,
A. Kiss
,
D. Virág
, and
E. Pénzes-Kónya

Consumption of microalgae might be regarded as one of the key elements of nutrition of the future, as they are highly abundant in bioactive components. As a consequence examinations on fortification and enhancement of the original biological value of microalgae are in the forefront of interest. Chlorella vulgaris, a unicellular green algae, constituted the focus point of our research, being a fairly frequent species available and purchasable in commerce. Emphasis was laid on investigation of extent of microelements’ bioaccumulation in cases of (Fe(III), Cu(II), Zn(II), Mo(VI)), in growth media containing diverse amounts of the metals. Bioaccumulating capability of Chlorella vulgaris was excellent in case of iron, which was studied with a two-week-long experiment in order to get information about the applicability of this alga species for production of functional food with enhanced microelement content. Metal-accumulating capacity of alginic acid being one of the major components of algae was also examined. Adsorption of Fe(II) to alginic acid was the weakest in comparison with copper(II), zinc(II), chromium(III) and chromium(VI).For the estimation of bioavailability of the algae-bound metals, in vitro digestion model experiments have been performed, pointing out that the available amounts of Fe(II) and Zn(II) are considerably higher than that of Cu(II). The studied microalga with high alginic acid content is suitable for application in microelement fortified functional foodstuffs due to the observed pronounced bioaccumulating feature.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Á. Klein
,
Margit Kulcsár
,
Virág Krízsik
,
R. Mátics
,
P. Rudas
,
J. Török
, and
Gy. Huszenicza

The basic patterns of thyroid hormones [thyroxine (T4) and 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3)] and the T4 and T3 responses induced by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) are reported in captive female barn owls (Tyto alba) during the non-breeding period. The main findings of the study, conducted on a total of 10 owls, are as follow: (1) The thyroid gland of barn owl can be stimulated by the classical TRH stimulation test. (2) T3 response was much more pronounced both under cold (around 10°C) and warm (around 20°C) conditions, whereas T4 response ranged so widely that we could not point out any significant change in it. (3) Basal T3 plasma level was significantly (p = 0.036) higher in birds exposed to cold temperature, and they responded to TRH treatment with a lower plasma T3 elevation than the birds kept in a warm chamber. This pattern, however, cannot be explained by increased food intake, but is in agreement with the fact that enhanced T3 level may account for higher avUCP mRNA expression, which results in higher heat production on the cell level. From the results it is concluded that altering T3 plasma level plays a significant role in cold-induced thermoregulation.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
A. Farsang
,
L. Makranszki
,
M. Dobos-Kovács
,
Györgyi Virág
,
Katalin Fábián
,
Tímea Barna
,
G. Kulcsár
,
L. Kucsera
, and
F. Vetési

An outbreak of the atypical form of myxomatosis struck a rabbit farm in Hungary. The animals had previously been vaccinated with a vaccine containing Shope rabbit fibroma virus strain. The disease appeared in winter when the presence of mosquitoes and fleas is not common. The virus was isolated from an eyelid specimen of a naturally infected rabbit. The surviving animals were observed for four weeks, blood samples were collected and, after euthanasia, organ specimens were also examined by morphological methods including pathology and electron microscopy. Serum samples were examined by virus neutralisation for antibodies. Genetic analysis of the isolated virus was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing. The primers were designed on the basis of the major envelope gene (Env) of the Lausanne reference strain in the GenBank. The viral proteins were examined by SDS-PAGE. The isolated virus (ref. no.: BP04/2001) was able to infect the susceptible animals directly, by contact. The disease was characterised by respiratory symptoms of the upper tracheal tract, conjunctivitis and high mortality by the 11th-14th day. Aerogenic infection with strain BP04/2001 resulted in 100% morbidity among the susceptible animals. Sequencing of the amplified 400-bp-long DNA revealed 97% homology with the Env gene of the Lausanne strain, which proves that strain BP04/2001 is a variant of the Lausanne strain having been enzootic throughout Europe. The live vaccine strain used in Hungary against myxomatosis, which is also a Lausanne-derived strain, protected the animals. According to the protein analysis a protein of 200 kDa in size is not expressed in strain BP04/2001. This is the first report on atypical myxomatosis in Central Europe. The virus spreads by airborne transmission and may cause severe losses in the rabbit population.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors:
Eszter Virág
,
Á. Juhász
,
R. Kardos
,
Z. Gazdag
,
G. Papp
,
Ágota Pénzes
,
M. Nyitrai
,
Cs. Vágvölgyi
, and
M. Pesti

Interaction of primycin antibiotic with plasma membrane, and its indirect biological effects were investigated in this study. The antifungal activity of primycin against 13 human pathogenic Candida ATCC and CBS reference species and 74 other Candida albicans clinical isolates was investigated with a microdilution technique. No primycin-resistant strain was detected. Direct interaction of primycin with the plasma membrane was demonstrated for the first time by using an ergosterol-producing strain 33erg + and its ergosterol-less mutant erg-2. In growth inhibition tests, the 33erg + strain proved to be more sensitive to primycin than its erg-2 mutant, indicating the importance of the plasma membrane composition in primycin-induced processes. The 64 μg ml−1 (56.8 nM) primycin treatment induced an enhanced membrane fluidity and altered plasma membrane dynamics, as measured by steady-state fluorescence anisotropy applying a trimethylammonium-diphenylhexatriene (TMA-DPH) fluorescence polarization probe. The following consequences were detected. The plasma membrane of the cells lost its barrier function, and the efflux of 260-nm-absorbing materials from treated cells of both strains was 1.5–1.8 times more than that for the control. Depending on the primycin concentration, the cells exhibited unipolar budding, pseudohyphae formation, and a rough cell surface visualized by scanning electron microscopy.

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