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  • Author or Editor: A. Wang x
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Abstract  

Reaction of recoild38Cl atoms with o-dichlorobenzene in the presence of carbon tetrachloride or iodine has been studied by using radio-high performance liquid chromatography. The major products were detected by a 4-channel-wavelengths spectrophotometric detector. The radioactivity of38Cl compounds including minor products was measured with a NaI(T1) scintillation detector. The main products found were38Cl labeled HCl/Cl2, CHCl3, CCl4, o-, p-, m-C6H6Cl2 and polymer, whereas only minor products such as HCl/Cl2, CHCl3, C2Cl6, C6H3Cl3, and polymer were found in the radio-chromatogram. The reaction mechanisms of recoil38Cl atom are briefly described.

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Five different bamboo plantations were investigated on the basis of the leaf litter inhabiting mites. 11 Mesostigmata and 10 Oribatida are listed from the leaf litters, of which three species, e.g. Vulgarogamasus kraepelini (Berlese, 1905), Nothrus parvus Sitnikova, 1975, Metabelba paravulverosa Moritz, 1966 are new to the Hungarian fauna.

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To comprehensively understand the genetic basis of plant height (PH), quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for internode lengths, internode component indices and plant height component index (PHCI) were firstly conducted in the present study. Two related F8:9 recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations comprising 485 and 229 lines were used. Two hundred and nine putative additive QTL for the eight traits were identified, 35 of which showed significance in at least three trials. Of these, at least 11 pairwise QTL were common to the two populations. PH components at the QTL level had different effects on PH, confirming our previous multivariate conditional analysis (Cui et al. 2011). Eleven major QTL that showed consistency in expression across environments should be of great value in the genetic improvement of PH in wheat. The results above will enhance the understanding of the genetic basis of PH in wheat.

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A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population with 302 lines derived from a cross of Weimai 8 × Luohan 2 was used to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for plant height (PH) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Possible genetic relationships between PH and PH components (PHC), including spike length (SL) and internode length from the first to the fourth node counted from the top, abbreviated as FIITL, SITL, TITL and FOITL, respectively, were evaluated at the QTL level. A QTL for PH was mapped using data on PH and on PH conditioned by PHC using the IciMapping V3.0 software. Conditional QTL mapping proved that, at the QTL level, SL contributed the least to PH, followed by FIITL and FOITL, while TITL had the strongest influence on PH, followed by SITL. These results indicate that the conditional QTL mapping method can be used to evaluate possible genetic relationships between PH and PHC, and that it can efficiently and precisely reveal counteracting QTL, which will enhance our understanding of the genetic basis of PH in wheat.

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Summary  

The sorption and desorption of radionuclide 90Sr2+were investigated on untreated calcareous soil and two treated soils to remove organic matter and calcium carbonate using batch technique. The experiments were carried out at ambient condition, pH 7.8±0.1 and in the presence of 0.001M NaCl. Effects of fulvic acid and ionic strength on the sorption of 90Sr2+on calcareous soil were also studied. It was found that the sorption isotherms are linear in the strontium concentration range used herein, and the sorption of 90Sr2+on the calcareous soil can be described as a reversible sorption process and the sorption mechanism is mainly ion-exchange. The sorption is dependent on ionic strength, and fulvic acid enhances the sorption of 90Sr2+on calcareous soil. Organic matter present in the calcareous soil is a significant trap of 90Sr2+and is responsible for the sorption.

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Summary

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was used to extract shionone from Aster tataricus L. f. The effect of various parameters, i.e., temperature, pressure and sample particle size on yield was investigated with an analytical-scale SFE system to find the optimal conditions. The process was then scaled up by 50 times with a preparative SFE system under the optimized conditions of temperature 40 °C, pressure 30 MPa, and a sample particle size of 40–60 mesh. Then preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography was successfully used for isolation and purification of shionone from the SFE extract with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-methanol (2:1, volume ratio). The separation produced a total of 75 mg of shionone from 500 mg of the crude extract in one step separation with the purity of 98.7%, respectively, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and 92% recovery. The structure of shionone was identified by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR).

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Abstract

The present study deals with the effects of wood flour on thermal and burning properties of wood flour-poly(vinyl chloride) composites (WF-PVC) using thermogravimetric (TG), cone calorimetry (CONE), and pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py–GC/MS). TG tests show that an interaction occurred between wood flour and PVC during the thermal degradation of WF-PVC. Wood flour decreased the temperature of onset of decomposition of PVC. However, the char formation could be increased by adding wood flour to PVC. CONE test indicates that wood flour had positive effects on heat release and smoke emission of PVC. Comparing with PVC, WF-PVC reduced average heat release rate and the peak HRR by about 14 and 28%, respectively; smoke production rate was also decreased. The degradation mechanism was studied by Py–GC/MS. The results show that the volatile pyrolysis products of WF-PVC are very different from PVC. The yields of HCl and aromatic compounds decreased dramatically, and the aliphatic compounds increased by the incorporation of WF.

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The introgressed alien chromosome in BC 10 F 5 progeny of the cross between common wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) and Agropyron elongatum (Host) (2n=7X=70) [syn. Thinopyrum ponticum (Popd.) Barkworth & D.R. Dewey] was determined by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using genomic DNA from A. elongatum as a probe in GISH and repeat sequence pAs1, pSc119.2 as probes in FISH, and molecular marker techniques. The results revealed that the line was a chromosome additional line in which a pair of the chromosomes added was composed of chromosome segment from E-genome of A. elongatum and short arm of 5B of common wheat cultivar Gao 38 identified by E-genome-specific primers. Powdery mildew test showed the line was highly resistant to powdery mildew as its A. elongatum parent and this indicated that the gene of resistant to powdery mildew might come from A. elongatum and localized on E-genome.

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Abstract  

This article presents results of the experimental investigation on the adsorption of the water vapor on silica gel. Two independent experimental methods has been used, viz. the constant-volume-variable-pressure (CVVP) system and variable pressure thermogravimetry (TG). Results from these two methods are compared with each other. Also the isosteric heat of adsorption of this system has been determined from the equilibrium data. The silica gels investigated here are Fuji Davison type 'A' and type 'RD'. Adsorption isotherm of water vapor have been measured under a variety of conditions all referring to chiller operation cycles, i.e. temperatures from 303 to 358 K and pressures from 500 to 7000 Pa. The data collected from the two independent experiments compare very favorably with each other and their trends are consistent with those of the adsorption chiller manufacturer. This lends significant weight to our experimental data on silica gel+water systems as being valuable to the adsorption chiller manufacturers and the scientific community.

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Abstract  

Both calorimetric determination of displacement adsorption enthalpies ΔH and measurement of adsorbed amounts of lysozyme (Lyz) denatured by 1.8 mol L−1 guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) on a moderately hydrophobic packings at 298 K, pH 7.0 and various salt concentrations were carried out. Based on the thermodynamics of stoichiometric displacement theory (SDT) the fractions of thermodynamic functions, which related to four subprocesses of denatured protein refolding on the surface, were calculated and thermodynamic analysis that which one of the subprocesses plays major role for contribution to the thermodynamic fractions was made in detail. The moderately hydrophobic surface can provide denatured Lyz energy and make it gain more conformation with surface coverage or salt concentration increment. The displacement adsorptions of denatured Lyz onto PEG-600 surface are exothermic, more structure-ordered and enthalpy driven processes.

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