The deposition of trace and major elements from the atmosphere to the ground is an important factor for plants, animals and
humans as well. Total suspended particulate matter was measured by a standard gravimetric technique. A scanning electron microscope
was used for the evaluation of the size distribution and morphological structures of the aerosol particulates trapped on the
surface of filter paper. The aerosol particulates were studied by a scanning electron microscope at various magnification.
The trace elemental composition in the atmosphere of Faisalabad was studied by using instrumental neutron activation analysis
(INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Concentrations of 23 trace elements and a major one were determined in samples
of aerosol particulates collected during a longe sampling period in the atmosphere at Faisalabad, Pakistan. Their amount was
two times higher than the limits adopted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the urban environment.
is considered an important medicinal plant by the local population of Balochistan, Pakistan. The species is facing a grave threat by a parasitic and epiphytic angiosperm, dwarf mistletoe,
(DC.) M. Bieb. (Viscaceae). The methanolic extract of
was studied for its chemical composition and biologically active compounds for the first time. The extract was assayed for antibacterial, antifungal, phytotoxic, cytotoxic and insecticidal activities. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the extract were determined against ten bacterial and ten fungal strains by agar well diffusion and disc diffusion assay. The extract was highly effective against three bacteria
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis
and a fungus
. The phytotoxic effects showed that it was extremely toxic for
. It showed high cytoxicity for brine shrimps at all concentrations and was found to be significantly cytotoxic against
when checked by flow cytometer. However, the extract was not effective against the pests tested.
A total of 32 bacterial isolates including
(N=12) and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (N=10) were isolated and tested for siderophore, HCN, ammonia, indole acetic acid production and phosphate solubilization
. The bacterial cultures were positive for siderophore, HCN and ammonia. Among the isolates,
A4 displayed 35 and 14 μg ml
of IAA, respectively, whereas
produced 19 (
PSB1) and 17 μg ml
PSB10) of IAA in Luria Bertani broth. The diameter of the P solubilization zone varied between 4 (
PSB1) and 5 mm (
PSB10) and a considerable amount of tricalcium phosphate (7 and 8 μg ml
PSB10, respectively) was released in liquid medium, with a concomitant drop in pH. The effects of N
-fixing and PS bacteria on the growth, chlorophyll content, seed yield, grain protein and N uptake of chickpea plants in field trials varied considerably between the treatments. Nodule number and biomass were significantly greater at 90 days after sowing (DAS), decreasing by 145 DAS. Seed yield increased by 250% due to inoculation with
PSB10, relative to the control treatment. Grain protein content ranged from 180 (
PSB1) to 309 ng g
PSB10) in inoculated chickpea. The N contents in roots and shoots differed considerably among the treatments.
The proposed reference material from the International Atomic Energy Agency, namely IAEA-407 (Fish Homogenate) was analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). 15 elements, Al, As, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, K, Na, Sb, Se, V and Zn, were determined using two irradiations (5 minutes and 5 hours) and four countings. IAEA-MA-A-1/TM (Copepoda Homogenate), NIST-SRM-1566 (Oyster Tissue), NIST-SRM-1572 (Citrus Leaves) and NIST-SRM-1577a (Bovine Liver) were utilized as standards in the quantification step.
INAA, RNAA and IPAA were employed to determine upto 26 trace elements in 32 spices of 18 species and 16 pulses of 8 species originating from different localities. The results are compared with each other and the reported values. The concentration levels, their variations and the correlations of the analysed elements in these samples were also investigated. The variability of concentrations among the samples of different origin are small. The levels and ranges of the concentration are highly variable which are found to be characteristic to each element. High elemental correlations exist in some sets of elements, reflecting characteristics of chemical nature of elements and/or of their physiological functions.
instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been employed to determine 19 essential and other trace elements of fourteen
fruits harvested in Pakistan. Most of the fruits investigated contain substantial Ca, Cl, Fe, Mg, K and Na concentration levels.
Fruits were found to be an adequate source of Co and Fe. Winter season provides a variety of fruits with highest adequacy
for most of the essential elements while the fruits ingested in the summer season provide the minimum nutrient adequacy for
these elements with the exception of Cl.
Most agronomic soils contain large reserves of total phosphorus [P], but the fixation and precipitation of P cause P deficiency, and in turn, restrict the growth of crops severely. Phosphorus replenishment, especially in sustainable production systems, remains a major challenge as it is mainly fertilizer-dependent. Though the use of chemical P fertilizers is obviously the best means to circumvent P deficiency in different agro-ecosystems, their use is always limited due to its spiralling cost. A greater interest has, therefore, been generated to find an alternative yet inexpensive technology that could provide sufficient P to plants while reducing the dependence on expensive chemical P fertilizers. Among the heterogeneous and naturally abundant microbes inhabiting the rhizosphere, the phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) including bacteria have provided an alternative biotechnological solution in sustainable agriculture to meet the P demands of plants. These organisms in addition to providing P to plants also facilitate plant growth by other mechanisms. Despite their different ecological niches and multiple functional properties, P-solubilizing bacteria have yet to fulfil their promise as commercial bio-inoculants. Current developments in our understanding of the functional diversity, rhizosphere colonizing ability, mode of actions and judicious application are likely to facilitate their use as reliable components in the management of sustainable agricultural systems.
Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a reliable biochemical marker used in screening for prostate carcinoma. Immunoradiometric assays (IRMA) are generally used for the estimation of total/free PSA in serum samples. Radiolabeled antibody, an important reagent of IRMA was prepared and characterized using an in-house anti-PSA monoclonal antibody (Mab), Mab-2S. Mab-2S was radiolabeled with 125I and characterized for immunoreactivity and radiochemical purity. The usability of the radioiodinated Mab as tracer in IRMA was ascertained using authentic reagents for IRMA of PSA.