Thermogravimetric data and the kinetic interpretation of the curves of mass loss for ferrocene, ferrocenecarboxylic and ferrocenedicarboxylic
acids and a series of ferrocene-containing polyamides are presented. The results indicate that the degradation process occurred
with more than one stage of thermal degradation. The apparent activation energy values and the FTIR spectra of the degradation
products suggest that the degradation mechanism occurred by either scission of weak links or by random scission of the chain.
Apparently, the N-vicinal methylene group was the primary site of attack of oxygen on the polymer chain.
Authors:R. Macêdo, O. de Moura, A. de Souza, and A. Macêdo
This work present comparative results on powder milk storage quality, obtained from analytical methods. Protein content was
determined conventional (Kjeldahl) and colorimetric with biuret reagent at 540 nm and integral quality by thermogravimetric
and biological methods. A method was developed for the protein separation of powder milk. Powder milk was submitted to degradation
processes at 45, 60 and 80°C for 20 days. The results indicated that protein content values were inconsistent if determinations
by Kjeldahl and colorimetric methods and biological tests were compared. There is evidence of thermal decomposition of powder
milk as detected by biological and thermogravimetric methods.
Seismic coda Qattenuation (Qc) in the frequency range from 6 to 20 Hz of two distinct Scoda windows (early and later portions) are compared to analyse the effects of both coda windows on crustal seismic attenuation estimates around Samambaia fault (João CâmaraNortheastern Brazil). Qcvalues associated with the later portion are systematically higher than those related to the early portion. These values follow a frequency (f) function given by Qc(f) = Q0f, where Q0= 11739 and= 1.000.06. In general, Q0estimate is less sensitive to site effects and stabler than that obtained from the early portion of S coda waves, while its corresponding frequency dependence is similar to that obtained from the early portion of S coda waves. It suggests thatparameter does not depend on coda window's location along the seismic signal. A comparative analysis of both Q0andvalues with those found recently shows that there is no difference in using early or later portion of S coda waves in the stations located on Pre-Cambrian basement in the João Câmara area. This comparison also shows that the major variations in Q0values were observed at seismic stations installed on sedimentary terrain. Differences in the seismic attenuation, in both sides of the Samambaia fault, were also observed in this study, and it is in agreement with the hypothesis that Samambaia fault is a kind of boundary between two seismic attenuation zones.
Authors:A. de Souza, Fe. Neto, J. de Souza, R. Macedo, J. de Oliveira, and C. Pinheiro
The standard molar enthalpy of formation of crystalline di-isobutyldithiocarbamate complexes of P, As, Sb and Bi(III) has
been derived by solution calorimetry at 298.15 K. The corresponding standard molar enthalpies of sublimation were estimated
by means of differential scanning calorimetry. From the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the gaseous chelates the
homolytic and heterolytic mean metal-sulphur bond-dissociation enthalpies were calculated.
Authors:V. Bormann de Souza, A. de Paiva, and C. Braga Poggi
Hair analysis presents a lot of advantages compared to the analysis of biological fluids or tissues. Hair of employers from
the National (Brazilian) Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) was analyzed and compared with a control group. Samples were heated
at 90°C with nitric acid, and diluted. Aliquot of these solutions was analyzed in ICP-MS. The concentration of U, Th, Pb and
Zn were determined. Student t-test showed that there is no significant difference among the groups for all analyzed elements. The results demonstrated
that men had more Pb than women. For Zn, the results showed that the levels are within the “normal” range, except for a woman
that had her hair painted.
Authors:F. Santos de Souza, A. Gomes Barreto, and R. Macêdo
The present work proposes evaluation of the gelatinization processes of starch by means of DSC coupled with a photovisual
system. The use of DSC, TG and DTA for a fast and efficient evaluation of the starch is suggested. The DSC curves of starch
gels with water contents of 20, 30, 40 and 50% (mass/v) exhibited different phase transitions, corresponding to the gelatinization
processes at the different water contents for the different lots. The DSC-photovisual system confirmed calorimetric behaviour
differences between the starch lots studied.
Authors:A. Moitinho, E. Ionashiro, G. de Souza, and F. Fertonani
Solid-state M-EDTA chelates, where M represents the divalent ions Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) or Ba(II) and EDTA is ethylenediaminetetraacetate
anion, were synthesized. Thermogravimetry, derivative thermogravimetry (TG, DTG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)
and X-ray diffraction powder patterns have been used to characterize and to study the thermal behaviour of these chelates.
The results provided information concerning the stoichiometry, crystallinity, thermal stability and thermal decomposition.
In this perspective article, the use of continuous flow synthesis to prepare advanced pharmaceutical intermediates in developing economies is highlighted. Case studies are presented to suggest that cost effective local manufacture of life saving drugs, may potentially be implemented to facilitate better access to drugs to the underprivileged.
Authors:A. de Oliveira, J. Ferreira, Márcia Silva, Soraia de Souza, F. Vieira, E. Longo, A. Souza, and Iêda Santos
NiWO4 and ZnWO4 were synthesized by the polymeric precursor method at low temperatures with zinc or nickel carbonate as secondary phase.
The materials were characterized by thermal analysis (TG/DTA), infrared spectroscopy, UV–Vis spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction.
NiWO4 was crystalline after calcination at 350 °C/12 h while ZnWO4 only crystallized after calcination at 400 °C for 2 h. Thermal decomposition of the powder precursor of NiWO4 heat treated for 12 h had one exothermic transition, while the precursor heat treated for 24 h had one more step between
600 and 800 °C with a small mass gain. Powder precursor of ZnWO4 presented three exothermic transitions, with peak temperatures and mass losses higher than NiWO4 has indicating that nickel made carbon elimination easier.
Authors:R. Queiroz, Luiza Pires, Ruth de Souza, J. Zamian, A. de Souza, G. da Rocha Filho, and C. da Costa
Hydrotalcite was synthesised by co-precipitation method, calcined and characterized by XRD, BET, IR and TG/DTA/DTG analyses
and tested as solid base catalyst in the transesterification of soybean oil with methanol, achieving a methyl ester content
of 99.5%. The thermal decomposition of hydrotalcite calcined occurred in four mass loss steps at 28, 105, 203 and 400 °C.
The hydrotalcite was recovered and through a simple evaluation by TG/DTA/DTG techniques it was found that at 500 °C is the
temperature, where the organic matter should be eliminated from the catalyst. This study shows the importance of thermal analysis
in the evaluation of the recovery temperature of hydrotalcite.