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Abstract  

Crystallization, morphology and mechanical properties of a spodumene-diopside glass ceramics with adding different amount of CaO and MgO in Li2O-Al2O3-2SiO2 were investigated. With CaO and MgO addition, the crystallization temperature (T p) decreased, the value of Avrami constant (n) decreased from 3.2±0.3 to 1.4±0.2, the activation energy (E) increased from 299±3 kJ mol−1 to 537±5 kJ mol−1. The crystalline phases precipitated were h-quartz solid solution, β-spodumene and diopside. The mechanism of crystallization of the glass ceramics changed from bulk crystallization to surface crystallization. The grain sizes and thermal expansion coefficients increased while flexural strength and fracture toughness of the glass-ceramics increased first, and then decreased. The mechanical properties were correlated with crystallization and morphology of glass ceramics.

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The most important viral pathogens of the cultivated potato are Potato virus X (PVX) and Potato virus Y (PVY), which can reduce potato production up to 80%. Thus resistance breeding is one of the major goals of plant breeders. Wild potato species are good sources of resistance (R) genes. The resistant plants respond to viral infection with hypersensitive reaction (HR) or extreme resistance (ER). HR is accompanied by programmed cell death, while ER localizes the virus at the primary infection site and limits virus replication without visible symptoms. While HR is generally strain-specific, ER can act against a broad spectrum of viral pathogens. This review aims to describe the molecular mechanisms of resistance against PVX and PVY in potato.

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Aculus epiphyllus (Nalepa, 1892) is reported from green ash in Europe for the first time. Ash rust mite has never been found on green ash, and we therefore re-describe and illustrate the female and male, and describe the nymph. The species was collected from the underside of the leaflets of the introduced ash species, Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall (Oleaceae) in Hungary.

Open access
Resolution and Discovery
Authors: K. Tomolya, D. Janovszky, A. Sycheva, M. Sveda, T. Ferenczi, and A. Roósz

Six compositions in (Cu49Zr45Al6)100 − xyNixTiy (x = 0, 5, 10; y = 0, 5, 10) system were selected in order to investigate the amorphization progress caused by milling. The initial structure of the powders before milling, type, and composition of the phases and their influence on the amorphization process were examined. CuZr phase was found to be determinative phase of amorphization process; however, its size does not influence it significantly in this system. CuZr fully dissolved the alloying elements, so that Ni and Ti phases do not appear as independent phases. In most cases, after 15 h of milling, the powders had amorphous structure with a few nanosized crystalline particles. It was shown that addition of both 10% Ti and 10% Ni to the alloy was an optimum condition to get stable, amorphous structure already after 12 h of ball milling.

Open access

Abstract  

The processes of nucleation of Li2O-Al2O3-SiO2 glasses with TiO2 and TiO2+ZrO2 as nucleating agents were discussed. The DTA peak temperature and DTA peak height shown a strong dependence on the nucleation temperature in the glass with TiO2, while in the glass with TiO2+ZrO2 this tendency was small. The optimum nucleation temperatures were 745 and 760°C for two glasses. It suggested that with TiO2+ZrO2 as nucleating agents, the crystallization had lower sensitivity for nucleation temperature, and the glass had higher nucleation efficiency than with TiO2.

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One of the plasmids present in a Haemophilus somnus strain isolated from nasal discharge of a cattle with respiratory disease was purified and cloned for DNA sequencing. The plasmid was found to be 1065 base pairs long with 39.2% G+C content, and showed no homology to any DNA sequenced so far. It has no capacity to code any protein longer than 43 residues. It is not clear yet if this plasmid codes Haemophilus somnus specific factors.

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The vaccine-induced maternal immunity against classical swine fever (CSF) was investigated in this study. Eight sows were vaccinated with the Chinese strain of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). The length of time between vaccination and farrowing was 167-217 days. Milk samples from the front, middle and back udder sections and blood samples were taken from the sows on days 3 and 14 after farrowing. Blood samples were obtained from the piglets at the age of 3, 6 and 10 weeks. The antibody level of the milk was examined by ELISA, and that of blood samples by the virus neutralization (VN) test as well. In all 3-week-old piglets and in 80% of the 6-week-old animals the neutralizing antibody level reached the titre of 1:40. In none of the 10-week-old piglets did the titre exceed the value of 1:20, but in about 25% of the piglets it reached 1:20; the half of these piglets came from two litters. In none of the piglets did the antibody level reach the negative threshold in the ELISA test during the study. No significant differences were found between the udder sections in milk antibody level by ELISA.

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The full sequence of the fiber gene and partial sequence of the putative 17 kD protein gene of bovine adenovirus-2 (BAdV-2) were determined. The size of the fiber gene of BAdV-2 proved to be 561 amino acids, of which the amino acids 37 to 385 form a typical shaft domain of 22 repetitive motifs. On the complementary strand, a gene homologous to the 17 kD protein coded in the E4 region of several human adenoviruses was found. The sequence analysis seems to confirm the presence of an intron in the sequenced part of the E4 region.

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Semi-natural grassland islands have a key role in slowing down biodiversity decline in intensively cultivated agricultural landscapes. Assemblages in such habitat patches are not only limited by local habitat quality, but are also influenced by the suitability and distribution of different habitat types in the surrounding landscape. If we want to preserve a functionally diverse Lepidoptera fauna, both local and landscape scale environmental effects, including land use and management, should be considered. In the present study, we describe trait-based characteristics of noctuid dominated macro-moth assemblages (MMAs) in grassland remnants of an intensively cultivated agricultural area. By gathering environmental data from local to landscape scales, we aimed to identify the most influential scales, possible interactions between scales and the role of integrated arable fields in shaping MMAs. We conducted abundance weighted trait-based multivariate analysis of the assemblages based on six trait groups. Both local and landscape scale variables had important influence, acting on different traits of the assemblages. By variance partitioning, we could identify variables that exerted maximal effect at 50 m and 250 m radii circles. Variables describing local vegetation and identity of neighbouring crop were responsible for species richness and rarity status, while the area of arable and wooded habitats within 250 m were responsible for total catch and pest status related traits. There was significant interaction between principal components axes representing local and landscape variables. Rarity, more than other traits, was influenced by the interaction. Integrated fields had no effect on MMAs. The present study highlights the contributions of both local and landscape scales to the shaping of MMAs and suggests that the preservation of both local habitat quality and landscape heterogeneity are important if we would like to maintain species rich and functionally diverse Lepidoptera fauna.

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Abstract

A considerable number of patients arriving in dental offices are being treated with ongoing medication for a variety of chronic diseases. As a result, dentists must be familiar with the potential side effects these therapeutic agents may have on the tissues of the oral cavity, and in particular on the salivary gland. Salivary gland function may be altered by a wide range of medications, leading to effects such as xerostomia, hyposalivation, hypersalivation or even swelling of the glands. These disorders can cause a variety of other health complications. This review will focus on the most common groups of drugs responsible for salivary gland dysfunction, including psychoactive drugs, antidepressants, antipsychotics, antihypertensives, and antihistamines.

Open access