Authors:Oreva Ogbor, Abraham Ajayi, Andreas E. Zautner and Stella I. Smith
Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are among the leading causes of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide, particularly in Africa. Poultry remains a major source of Campylobacter species and a vector of transmission to humans.
This pilot study was aimed at isolating and determining the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Campylobacter spp. from fresh poultry droppings collected from poultry farms in Lagos State, Nigeria. Susceptibility was assessed using the CLSI standards.
Standard microbiological methods were used in isolation, identification, and characterization of Campylobacter spp. Isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing by the disk diffusion method.
Of the 150 poultry droppings analyzed, 8 (5.3%) harbored Campylobacter spp. All isolates proved to be C. coli since they were all negative for the hip gene. A percentage of 100% showed resistance to nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol, cloxacillin, and streptomycin. While 87.5% were susceptible to amoxicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, 62.5% were susceptible to tetracycline. Surprisingly, 62.5% of C. coli had decreased (intermediate) susceptibility to erythromycin.
Although there was a low prevalence of C. coli from poultry in this study, the presence of antibiotic resistant strains circulating the food chain could result in treatment failures and difficulty in case management if involved in infections of humans.
Authors:Abraham Ajayi, Stella Ifeanyi Smith, Julien Coulibaly Kalpy, Ibidunni Oreoluwa Bode-Sojobi, Yao Kouamé René and Adeyemi Isaac Adeleye
Outbreaks of Salmonellosis remain a major public health problem globally. This study determined the diversity and antibiotic resistance gene profile of Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from humans and food animals. Using standard methods, Salmonella spp. were isolated from fecal samples, profiled for antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance genes. Seventy-one Salmonella isolates were recovered from both humans and food animals comprising cattle, sheep, and chicken. Forty-four serovars were identified, with dominant Salmonella Budapest (31.8%). Rare serovars were present in chicken (S. Alfort, S. Wichita, S. Linton, S. Ealing, and S. Ebrie) and humans (S. Mowanjum, S. Huettwillen, S. Limete, and S. Chagoua). Sixty-eight percent of isolates were sensitive to all test antibiotics, while the highest rate of resistance was to nalidixic acid (16.9%; n = 12), followed by ciprofloxacin (11.3%; n = 8) and tetracycline (9.9%; n = 8). Five isolates (7%) were multidrug-resistant and antimicrobial resistance genes coding resistance to tetracycline (tetA), beta-lactam (blaTEM), and quinolone/fluoroquinolone (qnrB and qnrS) were detected. Evolutionary analysis of gyrA gene sequences of human and food animal Salmonella isolates revealed variations but are evolutionarily interconnected. Isolates were grouped into four clades with S. Budapest isolate from cattle clustering with S. Budapest isolated from chicken, whereas S. Essen isolated from sheep and chicken was grouped into a clade. Diverse S. enterica serovars with high antibiotic resistance profile are ubiquitous in food animals; hence, there is a need for surveillance and prudent use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine.