The aims of the work is to develop a numerical iced airfoil; quarter round forward ice was tested on NACA 4410 and NACA 0012 airfoils at zero and non-zero angles of attack, and Reynolds numbers equal to (2∙105, 2.4∙105) based on airfoil chord and Mach number 0.04. The two-dimensional steady-state momentum equations with the continuity equation have been solved applying a finite volume method to examine the turbulent flow over a clean and iced airfoil. The cambered airfoil NACA 4410 spends less power than the unsymmetrical airfoil at the same angle of attack. The reported numerical results demonstrated that for airfoil NACA 4410, the drag was increased by 40%, and the lift was reduced by 22%. However, for airfoil NACA 0012, the drag was increased by 43%, and the lift was decreased by 21%.
Due to the increase in earthquake activity in Iraq and Middle East during the last two decades, the study and understanding of probable destructive action and the best method to mitigate this effect became more important. So, many improvements and mitigation methods can be used. In this study, the use of permeation grout technique was adopted to prevent the existing soil condition in urban area by using cement kiln dust and bentonite clay. The tests were executed by using 1 g shaking table apparatus to simulate a sinusoidal motion (vibration) at specified different frequencies. The liquefaction phenomena were observed for loose saturated sand at 60 s, 25 s, and 10 s for 0.5 Hz, 0.75 Hz, and 1 Hz, respectively. After mitigation process, the soil liquefaction did not occur until 100 s, 60 s, and 30 s, for the same mentioned frequencies. Besides, the use of cement kiln dust decreases the liquefaction potential and increase the factor of safety.