Authors:Alok Lehri, Jyoti Barthwal, Abhishek Niranjan, and Devendra Amla
India is the main producer of palmarosa oil obtained from rosha grass (Cymbopogan martini var. motia) of family Graminae. The essential oil obtained from the grass is rich in geraniol content. The oil is commercially obtained by hydro-steam distillation of rosha grass. Oil of palmarosa and its separated fraction geraniol are widely used in perfumery industry. The palmarosa oil is valued due to geraniol and largely used as base for fine perfumery. In this article, a simple, rapid, cost-effective and accurate method using high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been developed for separation, identification and quantification of geraniol in palmarosa oil. Separation and quantification of palmarosa are achieved by HPTLC using mobile phase of toluene-ethylacetate (92.5:7.5) followed by separation on precoated silica gel 60 F254 aluminium plates and densitometric determination carried out after derivatization with vanillin-sulfuric acid reagent at λmax, 400 nm, in absorption-reflectance mode. The calibration curves were linear in the range of (1–7 μg) and all the distinguished bands were observed at 400 nm. The method was also evaluated for different validation parameters such as linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), specificity, selectivity and sample stability. The amount of geraniol varied from 78.3% to 78.9% by HPTLC and 78.2% to 78.7% by gas chromatographyflame-ionization detector (GC-FID).
Authors:Abhishek Niranjan, Saurabh Verma, Alok Lehri, and Devendra Amla
The fruits of Trapa natans var. bispinosa Roxb. (singhara) of nutraceutical importance are commercially consumed in food commodities. It is nutritious while having several biological activities. In the present study, a simple, rapid, cost-effective, and sensitive highperformance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of four phenolic compounds viz. gallic (phenolic acid), caffeic acid (hydroxycinnamic acid), quercetin, and kaempferol (flavonols) in seeds and pericarp of green-, red-, and black-colored singhara fruits. The method is economical in terms of the time taken and the amount of solvent used for analysis. Simultaneous separation and quantification of compounds were achieved on HPTLC precoated silica gel 60 F254 aluminum plates using mobile phase of toluene-ethyl acetate-formic acid (13:11:2). Densitometric determination was carried out at λmax 282 nm. The calibration curves were linear ranging between 0.996 and 0.999; the limits of detection and quantification ranged between 86.8–135.0 ng μL−1 and 263.2–409.2 ng μL−1 and recovery ranged between 96.4% and 98.5%. The validated method was successively used to analyze the above compounds in fruit parts of singhara. The amount of phenolic compounds ranged from 0.04% kaempferol (green pericarp) to 2.11% gallic acid (red pericarp). The developed method may be used in the quality control and standardization of plant extracts as well as herbal drugs and formulations having polyphenols. As this study reveals the presence of specific phenolic compounds in green, red, and black pericarp of singhara, the agrowaste shall be a good source for isolation of the above compounds for industrial use.
Authors:Abhishek Niranjan, Nem Kumar Ngpoore, Naushi Anis, Anil Kumar, Alok Lehri, Pramod Arvind Shirke, and Shri Krishna Tewari
Fresh pods of Moringa oleifera with nutraceutical importance are widely consumed in food commodities as vegetables. It is nutritious and it also has several biological activities. In the present study, a simple, rapid, cost-effective, and sensitive high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was applied for the simultaneous determination of six phenolic compounds, viz., gallic (phenolic acid), p-coumaric, caffeic acid (hydroxycinnamic acid), chlorogenic acid (cinnamic acid derivative), quercetin and kaempferol (flavonols) in flowers, pods, leaves, twigs, and seeds of M. oleifera. Simultaneous separation and quantification of compounds were achieved on HPTLC pre-coated silica gel 60 F254 aluminum plates using the mobile phase toluene–ethyl acetate–formic acid (14:10:1). Densitometric determination was carried out at λmax 282 nm. The calibration curves were linear, ranged between 0.984 and 0.998; the limit of detection and quantification ranged between 110.8 ng mL−1 and 142.3 ng mL−1, and 301.6 ng μL−1 and 410.8 ng μL−1; and recovery ranged between 96.2% and 97.9%. The validated method was successively used to analyze the above compounds in the plant parts of M. oleifera. The amount of the total phenolic content and specific phenolic compounds ranged from 4.86 mg g−1 (gallic acid equivalent [GAE]) to 14.79 mg g−1 (GAE) and 0.007% quercetin (flower and flower with pods) to 0.099% gallic acid (pods of 15 days). This study reveals that the presence of specific phenolic compounds in M. oleifera shall be a good source for the isolation of the above-mentioned compounds for industrial use.