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Abstract  

In this paper we carry out an empirical analysis to address some questions concerning the production and quality of technology in environmental sectors. The methodology involves patents as a measure of the generation of new knowledge, and patent citations as a proxy for the quality of a technological invention. The sample contains more than 12,000 environmental European patents from firms and government institutions from 1998 to 2004. From our econometric analysis, we found that environmental patents applied by individual inventors present on average less quality that those applied by institutional inventors. The size of family patent is relevant to explain forward patent citation. Furthermore, patents coming from abroad (out of Europe), in particular with US and Japan priority, are more cited on average than local patents (with European priority). Lastly, the specialization in environmental fields of a patent plays a negative role in determining the frequency of forward citation.

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Scientometrics
Authors:
Isidro Aguillo
,
José Ortega
,
Mario Fernández
, and
Ana Utrilla

Abstract  

The Ranking Web of World Repositories (http://repositories.webometrics.info) is introduced. The objective is to promote Open access initiatives (OAI) supporting the use of repositories for scientific evaluation purposes. A set of metrics based on web presence, impact and usage is discussed. The Ranking is built on indicators obtained from web search engines following a model close to the Impact Factor one. The activity accounts for a 50% of the index, including number of pages, pdf files and items in Google Scholar database, while the visibility takes into account the external inlinks received by the repository (the other 50%). The Ranking provides the Top 300 repositories from a total of 592 worldwide, with a strong presence of US, German and British institutional repositories and the leadership of the large subject repositories. Results suggest the need to take into consideration other file formats and the usage information, an option is not feasible today.

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Abstract  

The most widely identified degradation process suffered by calcium aluminate cement (CAC) is the so-called conversion of hexagonal calcium aluminate hydrate to cubic form. This conversion is usually followed by an increase in porosity determined by the different densities of these hydrates and the subsequent loss of strength. Mixes of calcium aluminate cement (CAC) and silica fume (SF) or fly ash (FA) represent an interesting alternative for the stabilization of CAC hydrates, which might be attributed to a microstructure based mainly on aluminosilicates. This paper deals with the microstructure of cement pastes fabricated with mixtures CAC-SF and CAC-FA and its evolution over time. Thermal analysis (DTA/TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and mid-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have been used to assess the microstructure of these formulations.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Dolores Cid
,
José Francisco Fernández-Garayzábal
,
Chris Pinto
,
Lucas Domínguez
, and
Ana Isabel Vela

Pasteurella multocida is responsible for economically important diseases in sheep and pigs. Antimicrobial susceptibility studies are essential for initiating rational and effective empirical therapy of P. multocida infections. In this study we investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility to 18 antimicrobial agents of 156 clinical isolates of P. multocida from sheep (n = 87) and pigs (n = 69) using the microdilution method. Both sheep and pig isolates exhibited low levels of resistance (≤ 15%) to ceftiofur, gentamicin, neomycin, spectinomycin, chlortetracycline, tulathromycin, florfenicol, danofloxacin, and enrofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, high resistance rates (> 15% up to 50%) to oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, and tiamulin, and very high resistance rates (> 50%) to tylosin tartrate, clindamycin, and sulphadimethoxine. However, sheep isolates exhibited significantly lower percentages of resistance and lower MIC90 values (P < 0.05) than pig isolates for most of the antimicrobials tested. In addition, sheep isolates exhibited also significantly lower phenotypic antimicrobial resistance diversity (8 resistotypes vs. 30 resistotypes). LAC-LIN-SUL-MAC was the resistotype most frequently detected in sheep (39.1%) and LIN-SUL-MAC in pig isolates (26.1%). The differences in susceptibility patterns could be influenced by the lower use of antimicrobials in the small ruminant industry compared with the pig farming industry.

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Evolution, Mind and Behaviour
Authors:
Pablo Polo Polo
,
Jose Antonio Munoz-Reyes
,
Ana Maria Fernandez Tapia
,
Juan Enrique Wilson
, and
Enrique Turiégano

Individuals vary in their intrasexual competitiveness attitude, i.e., an important variable reflecting the potential threat or the extent to which one perceives other individuals of the same sex as social or mating rivals. In this study, we investigated the relationship between self-perceived mate value, a construct usually linked to intersexual selection, and intrasexual competitiveness attitude. We postulated that those psychological traits that increase mate value are related to psychological traits underlying intrasexual competitiveness attitude. The results obtained from a sample of 711 young participants of both sexes (M = 16.93 years ± SD = 0.86) indicated that mate value was positively related to intrasexual competitiveness attitude. Specifically, the subscales of Fear of Failure, Wealth, and Looks were positive predictors of intrasexual competitiveness attitude. Moreover, the Looks subscale was more relevant in determining intrasexual competitiveness attitude in women than in men. These three subscales were part of the same factorial structure that appears to be indicative of a self-promoting strategy based on the ostentation of traits through attitudes. As a conclusion, we argue that the individual differences in intrasexual competitiveness attitudes are associated with the differences in psychological features usually associated with intersexual selection.

Open access
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Sergio Villanueva-Saz
,
Jacobo Giner
,
Antonio Fernández
,
María Magdalena Alcover
,
Cristina Riera
,
Roser Fisa
,
Andrés Yzuel
,
Ana González
,
Diana Marteles
, and
Maite Verde

Abstract

The information about the clinical features of Leishmania infantum infection in cats is scarce. In this study, we evaluated the serum protein electrophoresis of samples from 19 infected but apparently healthy cats. To detect L. infantum infection, two serological tests, i.e. western blot (WB) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as well as quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on the blood samples were performed. Eventual infection by several selected bacterial and viral pathogens was also tested. All but one of the cats were found positive with WB. The WB-negative cat was positive by ELISA only. From the 18 WB-positive cats, only three were positive also by ELISA and eight with qPCR, including the only animal which was positive in all the three tests. No concomitant infections were detected in any of the cats. The main alteration of the proteinogram was characterised by an increase of the α-2 fraction. In the five cats with hypergammaglobulinaemia, the pattern detected was polyclonal. None of the cats were seropositive to any other pathogens tested. The presence of polyclonal gammopathy and elevation of the α-2 fraction could suggest the presence of active infection. In contrast, the only detection of an increase of the α-2 fraction alone with the presence of positive serological result could be associated by immune response activation against L. infantum.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Sergio Villanueva-Saz
,
Jacobo Giner
,
Maite Verde
,
Andrés Yzuel
,
Delia Lacasta
,
Héctor Ruíz
,
Asier Basurco
,
Ana González
,
Diana Marteles
, and
Antonio Fernández

Abstract

Dirofilaria immitis is an endemic mosquito-borne pathogen widely spread throughout Europe as well as North and South America. Infection by D. immitis has been reported in domestic ferrets, although little is known about the occurrence and the epidemiological features of this nematode in this species. The aim of the present retrospective study was to assess the prevalence of D. immitis antibodies using an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specifically developed for use in ferrets. One hundred and eighty-six serum samples were obtained from the Province of Valencia (Spain), an area endemic for dirofilariosis. Of the 186 serum samples included in the study, 27 (14.51%) were classified as D. immitis seropositive and 159 samples as D. immitis seronegative. The results provide valuable information on the seroprevalence of D. immitis infection in domestic ferrets in an area endemic for this vector-borne pathogen. The presence of seropositive ferrets should be taken into account and preventive measures should be implemented, including the possibility of serological screening for the early detection of Dirofilaria antibodies as a serological marker of exposure. This is the first study that demonstrates the presence of D. immitis exposure in ferrets in Spain. Veterinarians working in endemic areas should be aware of this infection in ferrets and their susceptibility.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Amparo del Pino-Gutiérrez
,
Susana Jiménez-Murcia
,
Fernando Fernández-Aranda
,
Zaida Agüera
,
Roser Granero
,
Anders Hakansson
,
Ana B. Fagundo
,
Ferran Bolao
,
Ana Valdepérez
,
Gemma Mestre-Bach
,
Trevor Steward
,
Eva Penelo
,
Laura Moragas
,
Neus Aymamí
,
Mónica Gómez-Peña
,
Assumpta Rigol-Cuadras
,
Virginia Martín-Romera
, and
José M. Menchón

Background and aims

The main aim of this study was to analyze and describe the clinical characteristics and shared personality traits in different impulsivity–compulsivity spectrum disorders: substance use disorders (SUD), gambling disorder (GD), and bulimia nervosa (BN). The specific aims were to compare personality differences among individuals with pure SUD, BN with and without SUD, and GD with and without SUD. In addition, we assessed the differential predictive capacity of clinical and personality variables in relation to diagnostic subtype.

Methods

The sample comprised 998 subjects diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria: 101 patients were diagnosed with SUD, 482 with GD, 359 with BN, 11 with GD + SUD, and 45 patients with BN + SUD. Various assessment instruments were administered, as well as other clinical measures, to evaluate their predictive capacity.

Results

Marked differences in personality traits were observed between groups. Novelty seeking, harm avoidance, self-directedness, cooperation, and self-transcendence best differentiated the groups. Notably, novelty seeking was significantly higher in the two dual pathology subgroups. Patients with dual pathology showed the most dysfunctional personality profiles.

Discussion and conclusion

Our results indicate the existence of shared dysfunctional personality traits among the groups studied, especially in novelty seeking and self-directedness.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Ana Estévez
,
Raquel Rodríguez
,
Noelia Díaz
,
Roser Granero
,
Gemma Mestre-Bach
,
Trevor Steward
,
Fernando Fernández-Aranda
,
Neus Aymamí
,
Mónica Gómez-Peña
,
Amparo del Pino-Gutiérrez
,
Marta Baño
,
Laura Moragas
,
Núria Mallorquí-Bagué
,
Hibai López-González
,
Paula Jauregui
,
Jaione Onaindia
,
Virginia Martín-Romera
,
José M. Menchón
, and
Susana Jiménez-Murcia

Background and aims

Recent technological developments have brought about notable changes in the way people gamble. The widespread use of mobile Internet devices and gambling websites has led to a significant leap in the number of people who recreationally gamble. However, for some, gambling can turn into a psychiatric disorder resembling substance addiction. At present, there is a shortage of studies examining differences between adults with gambling disorder (GD) who exclusively make sports bets online, GD patients that are non-sports Internet gamblers, and offline gamblers. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the differences between these three groups, considering sociodemographic, personality, and clinical characteristics.

Methods

The sample consisted of 2,743 treatment-seeking male patients from the Pathological Gambling Unit at a university hospital. All patients met DSM-5 criteria for GD.

Results

We found that gamblers who exclusively engaged in non-sports Internet gambling activities were younger than offline gamblers and online sports gamblers. Non-sports Internet gamblers were also more likely to have greater levels of debt compared with offline gamblers. In terms of personality characteristics, our sample displayed low levels of self-directedness and cooperativeness and high levels of novelty seeking. In addition, online sports gamblers obtained higher scores in persistence than non-sports Internet gamblers and offline gamblers.

Discussion and conclusion

Although differences if terms of gambling severity were not identified between groups, GD patients who exclusively bet online appear to possess distinct personality characteristics and higher debt levels compared with offline gamblers.

Open access