The present paper aims at the exemplification of the applicability of plausibility analysis to linguistics. Starting from the criticism of Robinson (1997), the paper argues for two assumptions. Firstly, as opposed to a theory of distributed systems, it is a theory of plausible reasoning that is capable of capturing basic methodological problems of theory formation in pragmatics (such as circularity, category error, the arbitrariness of interpretations of data and the objectification of the theorist's cultural and linguistic knowledge as principles of language behaviour). Secondly, the cognitive base of pragmatic principles is inferential and plausibilistic, rather than non-inferential and probabilistic.
The paper focuses on
the relation between the analytical philosophy of science and modular and
holistic approaches to cognitive linguistics, respectively. The authors show
that Chomsky's as well as Bierwisch & Lang's and Lakoff & Johnson's
approaches make substantial use of non-demonstrative inferences which the
standard view of the analytical philosophy of science evaluates as fallacies.
By outlining a metatheoretical framework focusing on plausible inferences, the
authors argue that the inferences the theories mentioned make use of are
plausible rather than fallacious. This finding illuminates basic aspects of
theory formation in linguistics and motivates the revaluation of the
methodological foundations of linguistic theories.
Imageability is the quality of a place that makes it distinct, recognizable, and memorable. It defines the character and identity for cities. However, the fast expansion of urban development affects the image of city and its fabric toward the mega scale and transforms cities local cultural life as loosing most of their historic fabrics. These make cities loose there images gradually. Hence, the aim of this paper is to explore the main physical elements that contribute toward attractiveness as one of imageability character in Salt City in Jordan. Historical review and site analysis were the main methodology used in this study. This paper show some of the physical elements that contribute to attractiveness connected with image of the Salt City in Jordan, these elements are: building appearance (material, façade design) and landscape (topography).
Accessibility is known as the ease of reaching destinations. The accessibility is determined by the spatial distribution of potential destinations, and the magnitude, quality, and character of the activities found there. However, modernization and the fast expansion of urban development transform cities' local cultural life from walkable accessible places to just car places. This has encroached into every corner of our urban environment today. In addition, the available services and systems to manage the pedestrian movement in the historic core are inadequate and inefficient, posing risks to both the traffic and the pedestrians. That affects the walkability for cities gradually. Hence, this paper aims to explore the main physical elements that contribute toward accessibility under three main categories (pedestrians, vehicles and public transport) as one of the walkability characters in Salt City in Jordan. Historical review, site analysis, and survey were the main methodology used in this study.
Rapid development has affected the elements of urban spaces adversely, particularly streets. These changes produce faceless cities with high dependency on vehicles for transportation to key ‘consumers’ aside from buildings that are not designed for the local environment and local needs. In urban design, concerns on character affect the sense of place. Thus, this paper assesses the crucial element of streets with respect to design and character in the urban setting, the subsequent issues, and the recommended solution. This study focuses on the scenarios that threaten today's street design. This work will discuss the advantages of traditional streets, which could be a potential solution to the issues mentioned earlier. Finally, a street design based on the traditional street model is proposed to fulfill the criteria necessitated by the local community.
The focus of this research is the connection between architecture and water, how this natural element has formed the way of thinking. To give a complex answer, it is required to observe this complex topic from different aspects: time, space (with macro and micro space typology), meaning, technology, art and architectural design method, which all together can create a network of ideas. This outlined network could provide a theoretical basis for a new complex design method – from the building scale to the urban scale – for the upcoming challenges of built environment in connection with water in the future.