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Das Filmen von Riten und Bräuchen

Filming rites and customs

Author: András Simon

Since the earliest times, capturing celebrations, customs and rites in a motion picture has been very important in the history of Hungarian and international ethnographic and anthropological filming. When filming rites, the rites themselves - with their more or less definite dramaturgy - determine the content and construction (structure) of the film. The problem of documenting rites lies with the fact that customs and rites are extraordinarily complex, varied and often having sophisticated system of symbols which make them very difficult to describe. That is why fieldwork - participant observation and making interviews - is that important. During it we have to reveal and examine the background of the custom and the ritual organisation. In the present study, I undertook to list the practical, methodological questions we had to face during videotaping customs and rites of religious and secular nature which are discussed in both the Hungarian and the international literature. The questions are based on the experience with our own recordings and films made at the Department of Ethnology and Cultural Anthropology, University of Szeged, Hungary. We applied filming as a research method each time when studying a subject. I examine and interpret concepts equally important during making scientific documentary, interpreting data, and cutting: questions of objectivity and subjectivity, and the possible levels of depicting reality. The whole process of film-making and the created film itself receive their total value and role in the threefold interrelation of the film-maker, the informants and the audience of the film.

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September 1929, when the ministry of culture established the department of ethnology at the University of Szeged, the first of its kind in Hungary, was an important milestone in the history of ethnology as a discipline in Hungary. The later professor and head of the department was Sándor Bálint (1904-1980), outstanding researcher on the cultural history and folk life of Szeged and ethnology of religion in Hungary. In the 2004/2005 academic year the University of Szeged, the museum and the municipality commemorated the 75th anniversary of the establishment of the department of ethnology and the centenary of the birth of Sándor Bálint with an exhibition, the publication of books, anniversary conferences and film screenings. The anniversary events were held with the participation of Hungarian and international representatives of our discipline and the related fields.

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The article attempts to give an overview of how the different types of borders in Hungarian vine and wine culture can be manifested. In addition to the borders separating the different wine regions, there can also be borders within the individual vine-growing areas. The central purpose of the delimitation of a wine area is to establish a distinctive identity for the wines produced within it, and provide a means whereby the provenance of those wines can be guaranteed. The question and problem of drawing, strengthening and representing the borders can certainly throw light on new aspects of the grape and wine culture that can be regarded as related to the interests of vine-growing communities and to conflicts between them.

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Authors: László Mód and András Simon
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Radamos (Radmožanci) is a village with a population of 254, inhabited by Hungarians of Roman Catholic religion, in the territory of present-day Slovenia bordering on Hungary. József Füle, a local inhabitant, experienced the apparition of Mary alone on June 15, 1947. The news spread immediately and in the summer of 1947 great numbers of people from the surrounding Hungarian, Croatian and Slovenian villages came regularly to visit the tree, and the Virgin Mary appeared to many of them, including a large number of children. The communist authorities of Yugoslavia at that time took a dim view of spontaneously organised pilgrimages with religious content: they imprisoned a number of people. The principal goal of the article, in addition to presenting the events of 1947, is to analyse the process whereby the apparitions live on in individual and collective memory, and the forms of manifestation found today, more than half a century after the apparitions. The authors also wish to interpret the process in which the pilgrimage site was transformed from the mid-1990s.

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Absztrakt

A humanista J. G. Macer Szepsius (1530–1579 után) a felső-magyarországi Szepsiben született (ma Szlovákia, Moldava nad Bodvou). Krakkóban élt, latin alkalmi verseket írt. De vera gloria libellus (Könyvecske az igaz dicsőségről) című, 1562-ben kiadott művében az egyes foglalkozásokról ír, megróva művelőiket hibáikért. Az orvos, Macer Szepsius jellemzésében, garrulus (fecsegő), mendicus (kunyeráló), haspók, csaló. Nem olvas semmit, éjjel-nappal alszik, nem a tudás, hanem tudatlanság, nagyképűség és gőg jellemző rá. Olyan gyógyszereket ír föl, amelyek hatását nem ismeri. Macer Szepsius kritikája megdöbbentő, hiszen valószínűleg maga is szoros kapcsolatban állt a medicinával. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(6), 230–232.

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The relationship of managerial bonuses and profit maximization is interesting both from an economic and a managerial viewpoint. Our contribution to this literature is showing that progressive managerial bonuses can increase profits in a spatial Bertrand competition, and furthermore they can help collusion.

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Authors: Jana Balegová, František Šimon and László András Magyar
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