Since lithium salts were demonstrated to be very effective for the potential control of Varroa destructor, a highly detrimental parasite of honey bee (Apis mellifera), no studies have been reported on their comparison with any commonly used varroicides in commercial bee colonies. In this study we compared the effectiveness of lithium chloride to that of oxalic acid, a widely used miticide. The results of the present study confirm that lithium has superior efficacy to oxalic acid sublimation both as a main or a supplementary pre-wintering treatment at moderate infestation levels, restricted to certain pre-wintering conditions. Considering its easy implementation in apicultural practice and its twofold mode of action, trickling would be the preferred way of administration after the use of lithium salts as varroicides is authorised.
Microscopic inclusions have been observed in 7 out of 106 European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) sagittae using polarizing microscope and scanning electron microscope meanwhile the annual increments were studied to characterize the age structure of the population living in Lake Balaton. The presence of vaterite, a rare calcium carbonate polymorph was observed in these inclusions using Raman spectroscopy. Vateritic sagittae in wild fish are usually considered as symptom of physiological stress. The observed fusiform inclusions represent a new morphological type of vaterite inclusions in eel otolith. Two alternatives are hypothesized to explain their formation: 1) metabolic disorder, such as erroneous protein synthesis; 2) introduction of an alien protein into the eel’s inner ear. The origin and physiological significance of this new morphological type of vateritic inclusions is still an open question. Same as whether it can be found in other species or specific only to eel otoliths.