Recent publications on the goldsmiths of the early modern age employed in aristocratic courts provide the grounds for the reconsideration of some basic questions concerning an outstanding art work in the Esterházy col lection, first of all the circumstances of its commissioning and creation. It can be concluded that the “official” de finition of the gold cup with enamel decoration from the first decade of the 17th century prevalent for some twenty years now need revising. The more exact dating and the fact that the cup is adorned with the enamelled pictures of the coat of arms of Lower Austria allow for a far more palpable assumption about the client who gave the commission and the original owner. It is now presumed that the goldsmith's work was commissioned by archduke Matthias of Habsburg (1557–1619), Holy Roman Emperor from 1612, in 1608, the year of the beginning of his rule – after the resignation of his brother Rudolf II – over the hereditary Austrian provinces. As his personal present, the cup might have been given to its first designated owner Count Paul Sixtus Trautson (1550–1621), who was appointed lieutenant-governor (Statthalter) of Lower Austria at the same time.
The subsequent fate of the art treasure is still an unsettled issue: how long it was in Trautson's possession, when and how it changed hands, how it arrived in the Fraknó treasury of the Esterházy family where it can be traced back to the 1690s. The paper attempts answers to these questions. The “final” answer, however, is expected to appear in a study of the Festschrift to be published on an equally festive occasion in honour of Miklós Mojzer in November 2021.
The paper attempts to interpret a so-far unpublished engraving without signature or date, and to identify the circumstances and date of its creation. The starting clues for the interpretation are two well-known heraldic motifs: the coat of arms of the Hungarian Kingdom and that of the Austrian line of the Habsburg dynasty. The former is held by an allegorical female figure — the personification of Hungaria, the latter is kept by a young ruler wearing a crown, on the right and left of the composition respectively. The essential message of the composition also emphasized by other motifs is obvious: the “meeting”, interdependence, mutually useful collaboration of the regnum and the dynasty is the principal theme. Beyond this general idea, however, the composition has more concrete implications. It wishes to indicate the precedents, historical causes of this advantageous and beneficial concord and cooperation as well as the valid and worthwhile future perspectives from the vantage point of the time of creation.
This context lends special appeal and importance to the question who — whose ideal portrait — can be identified with the crowned male figure carrying the Habsburg arms. It must be someone who in the clearly hungaricus context is entitled to embody the competence, aptitude and resoluteness of the Habsburg rulers. The answer will be obvious if we consider where the Habsburgs' long and often manifested aspiration for the acquisition or preservation of the Hungarian throne comes from. To be more precise: if we name the ruler of the Habsburg dynasty who, by the grace of God (Dei gratia) and by the will of the estate, firstly became the king of Hungary.
The successor to Sigismund of Luxemburg, Albert I of Habsburg — the person we were looking for — had a short reign, but his figure was remembered with acknowledgement and respect by posterity. The bicentenary of his accession to the throne (1 January 1438) was celebrated by several commemorative events at the time of the diet sitting in Pozsony in 1637—38. Great emphasis was laid on the anniversary in the political publications of the period as well, particularly in the Latin works whose publication was promoted by the bishop of Eger — later archbishop of Esztergom — György Lippay. The engraving presented in the paper was made for one of these publications as a frontispiece. Consequently, it might have been ordered by György Lippay, which is also proven by the dedication to him in Latin and the coat of arms of the bishop in the middle of the engraving.
Authors:András Bersényi, Erzsébet Berta, István Kádár, Róbert Glávits, Mihály Szilágyi and Sándor Fekete
To study the effects of high dietary molybdenum (Mo) content, rabbits were fed with commercial pellets and carrots containing 39 mg Mo/kg dry matter (DM) [Experiment 1] and with a commercial diet supplemented with 40 mg Mo/kg DM [Experiment 2] for 14 days. The high dietary Mo contents failed to reduce the growth performance of rabbits. Moreover, supplemental Mo given in a dose of 40 mg/kg non-significantly decreased the apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP) and crude fibre (CF) compared to the control (73.63 ± 2.49 and 18.56 ± 5.10 vs. 74.31 ± 3.03 and 21.38 ± 6.48, respectively). Molybdenum ingested with feeds was mainly excreted (57%) via the urine. The highest Mo levels were found in kidney and liver samples (3.464 ± 0.872; 5.27 ± 0.95 mg/kg DM [Experiment 1] and 1.878 ± 0.283; 1.62 ± 0.16 mg/kg DM [Experiment 2], respectively), and Mo could also be detected in limb meat (0.336 ± 0.205 mg/kg DM). It was stated that the testes were more sensitive to Mo exposure than the female reproductive organs because the number of germ cells was reduced. Due to the high dietary Mo intake free radicals could be generated, resulting in a marked increase of creatine kinase (CK) activity.
Authors:Imre Szilágyi, István Sajó, Péter Király, Gábor Tárkányi, Attila Tóth, András Szabó, Katalin Varga-Josepovits, János Madarász and György Pokol
This article discusses the formation and structure of ammonium tungsten bronzes, (NH4)xWO3−y. As analytical tools, TG/DTA-MS, XRD, SEM, Raman, XPS, and 1H-MAS NMR were used. The well-known α-hexagonal ammonium tungsten bronze (α-HATB, ICDD 42-0452) was thermally reduced and
around 550 °C a hexagonal ammonium tungsten bronze formed, whose structure was similar to α-HATB, but the hexagonal channels
were almost completely empty; thus, this phase was called reduced hexagonal (h-) WO3. In contrast with earlier considerations, it was found that the oxidation state of W atoms influenced at least as much the
cell parameters of α-HATB and h-WO3, as the packing of the hexagonal channels. Between 600 and 650 °C reduced h-WO3 transformed into another ammonium tungsten bronze, whose structure was disputed in the literature. It was found that the
structure of this phase—called β-HATB, (NH4)0.001WO2.79—was hexagonal.
Authors:Ádám Bede, Roderick B. Salisbury, András István Csathó, Péter Czukor, Dávid Gergely Páll, Gábor Szilágyi and Pál Sümegi
The Ecse-halom is a burial mound (kurgan) in the Hortobágy region of Hungary. Built in the Late Copper Age/Early Bronze Age by nomadic people from the east, it now stands on the border between two modern settlements. A road of medieval origin runs along this border and cuts deeply into the body of the mound. The southern half of the mound was plowed and used as a rice field, and later a military observation tower was built on top of it. Despite this disturbance, the surface of the mound is in decent condition and provides a home for regionally significant, species-rich loess steppe vegetation. The mound comprises two construction layers as indicated by magnetic susceptibility and thin-section micro-morphological analysis. Examination of organic compounds and carbonate content at various levels showed different values, which suggest a variety of natural and anthropogenic stratigraphic layers. Mid-sized siltstone fraction is dominant in the section. The layers originate from the immediate vicinity of the mound, but have different characteristics than present-day soils. These mounds contain a valuable record of cultural and environmental conditions occurring at the time of their construction, and also serve as a refuge for ancient loess vegetation; therefore their conservation is highly recommended.
Authors:Tamás Tahin, Szilvia Herczeg, László Gellér, András Mihály Boros, Orsolya Mária Kovács, Nándor Szegedi, Éva Fórizs, Szabolcs Szilágyi, István Osztheimer, Béla Merkely and Gábor Széplaki
Bevezetés: Ismert, hogy katéteres ablatio által okozott
szívizom-károsodás következtében megnő a szívizom-specifikus nekroenzimek
koncentrációja. Célkitűzés: A magas érzékenységű troponin T
(hsTnT) és a szívizom-specifikus kreatin-kináz (CKMB) szintje középtávú
változásának elemzése pitvarfibrilláció (PF), pitvari flutter (PFlu), AV-csomó
reentry tachycardia (AVNRT) rádiófrekvenciás katéteres ablatióját követően,
illetve elektrofiziológiai vizsgálat után. Módszer:
Rádiófrekvenciás ablatión, illetve elektrofiziológiai vizsgálaton átesett
betegeket vontunk be konszekutívan prospektív vizsgálatunkba.
Sorozatvérmintákból meghatároztuk a hsTnT- és a CKMB-szinteket a procedúra előtt
és után közvetlenül, majd 4 és 20 órával és 3 hónappal később.
Eredmények: Negyvenhét, 55 ± 13 év átlagéletkorú beteget
(10 elektrofiziológiai vizsgálat, 12 AVNRT, 13 PFlu és 12 PF) vontunk be
vizsgálatunkba. A hsTnT-szintek minden csoportban szignifikánsan megemelkedtek a
beavatkozást követően, a CKMB csak a PF-csoportban változott. A hsTnT-szint négy
órával a beavatkozást követően az összes ablatión átesett betegnél és az
elektrofiziológiai vizsgálaton átesett betegek 80%-ánál meghaladta a
referenciatartományt. A legmagasabb átlagos hsTnT-koncentrációk EFV, AVNRT, PFlu
esetén 24 ± 11, 260 ± 218 és 541 ± 233 ng/l-nek bizonyultak. A legmagasabb
hsTnT-szint a PF-ablatiós csoportban volt kimutatható 20 órával az ablatio után
(799 ± 433 ng/l). Pozitív korrelációt találtunk a rádiófrekvenciás ablatiót
követő hsTnT-szint és az ablatio ideje között. Következtetések:
A hsTnT alkalmas a rádiófrekvenciás ablatio és az elektrofiziológiai vizsgálat
utáni myocardialis necrosis vizsgálatára, az ablatión átesett betegek
mindegyikénél; elektrofiziológiai vizsgálat után 80%-ban pozitív a hsTnT. A
necrosis mértéke jelentősen függ a beavatkozás típusától, és korrelál az ablatio
kiterjedtségével. A fentiekben leírt megfigyelések iránymutatásként szolgálnak a
rádiófrekvenciás ablatio utáni hsTnT-szint megfelelő értelmezéséhez. Orv Hetil.
2019; 160(14): 540–548.