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Conciliator Concordiae Habsburg Albert Király Egy 17. Századi Rézmetszeten

Conciliator Concordiae King Albert Of Habsburg in a 17Th Century Engraving

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
András Szilágyi

Abstract

The paper attempts to interpret a so-far unpublished engraving without signature or date, and to identify the circumstances and date of its creation. The starting clues for the interpretation are two well-known heraldic motifs: the coat of arms of the Hungarian Kingdom and that of the Austrian line of the Habsburg dynasty. The former is held by an allegorical female figure — the personification of Hungaria, the latter is kept by a young ruler wearing a crown, on the right and left of the composition respectively. The essential message of the composition also emphasized by other motifs is obvious: the “meeting”, interdependence, mutually useful collaboration of the regnum and the dynasty is the principal theme. Beyond this general idea, however, the composition has more concrete implications. It wishes to indicate the precedents, historical causes of this advantageous and beneficial concord and cooperation as well as the valid and worthwhile future perspectives from the vantage point of the time of creation.

This context lends special appeal and importance to the question who — whose ideal portrait — can be identified with the crowned male figure carrying the Habsburg arms. It must be someone who in the clearly hungaricus context is entitled to embody the competence, aptitude and resoluteness of the Habsburg rulers. The answer will be obvious if we consider where the Habsburgs' long and often manifested aspiration for the acquisition or preservation of the Hungarian throne comes from. To be more precise: if we name the ruler of the Habsburg dynasty who, by the grace of God (Dei gratia) and by the will of the estate, firstly became the king of Hungary.

The successor to Sigismund of Luxemburg, Albert I of Habsburg — the person we were looking for — had a short reign, but his figure was remembered with acknowledgement and respect by posterity. The bicentenary of his accession to the throne (1 January 1438) was celebrated by several commemorative events at the time of the diet sitting in Pozsony in 1637—38. Great emphasis was laid on the anniversary in the political publications of the period as well, particularly in the Latin works whose publication was promoted by the bishop of Eger — later archbishop of Esztergom — György Lippay. The engraving presented in the paper was made for one of these publications as a frontispiece. Consequently, it might have been ordered by György Lippay, which is also proven by the dedication to him in Latin and the coat of arms of the bishop in the middle of the engraving.

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Aranyserleg a fraknói Esterházy-kincstárból

A Gold Cup from the Esterházy Treasury in Fraknó

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
András Szilágyi

Abstract

Recent publications on the goldsmiths of the early modern age employed in aristocratic courts provide the grounds for the reconsideration of some basic questions concerning an outstanding art work in the Esterházy col lection, first of all the circumstances of its commissioning and creation. It can be concluded that the “official” de finition of the gold cup with enamel decoration from the first decade of the 17th century prevalent for some twenty years now need revising. The more exact dating and the fact that the cup is adorned with the enamelled pictures of the coat of arms of Lower Austria allow for a far more palpable assumption about the client who gave the commission and the original owner. It is now presumed that the goldsmith's work was commissioned by archduke Matthias of Habsburg (1557–1619), Holy Roman Emperor from 1612, in 1608, the year of the beginning of his rule – after the resignation of his brother Rudolf II – over the hereditary Austrian provinces. As his personal present, the cup might have been given to its first designated owner Count Paul Sixtus Trautson (1550–1621), who was appointed lieutenant-governor (Statthalter) of Lower Austria at the same time.

The subsequent fate of the art treasure is still an unsettled issue: how long it was in Trautson's possession, when and how it changed hands, how it arrived in the Fraknó treasury of the Esterházy family where it can be traced back to the 1690s. The paper attempts answers to these questions. The “final” answer, however, is expected to appear in a study of the Festschrift to be published on an equally festive occasion in honour of Miklós Mojzer in November 2021.

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Propugnaculum sive Clipeus Christianitatis

Bildliche Darstellungsvarianten eines europaweit bekannten geflügelten Wortes von großer Vergangenheit in der zweiten Hälfte des 17. Jahrhunderts und zu Beginn des 18. Jahrhunderts

Acta Historiae Artium Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Author:
András Szilágyi

Propugnaculum sive Clipeus Christianitatis. Variants of the pictorial representation of a time-honoured European adage in Hungary in the second half of the seventeenth and the early eighteenth centuries. The news of the ill-starred military encounter at Vezekény on 26 August 1652 had unusually strong reverberations in Hungary and Europe. Judged by the contemporaries, those killed in the clash – including four members of the aristocratic Esterházy family – set an inspiring example of moral courage in the teeth of Turkish superiority in numbers: in a hopeless battle they chose perseverance to the end, that is, heroic self-sacrifice instead of surrendering. In addition to numerous quondam utterances including some quality works of literature, testifying to the intrepidity and fighting value of the Hungarian estates, two works of the applied arts – the subject matter of the paper – were also created with the aim of perpetuating the glorious memory of the fallen heroes.

In the years after the accession of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor (1658–1705) and King of Hungary (1657–1705) the politically active Hungarian estates had to acknowledge to their dismay that in the top echelon of the Viennese court the plan of an anti-Ottoman campaign – or any action to retaliate the incessant plundering and captive taking raids causing great casualties – was not on the agenda. A group of the politically active Hungarian estates had to draw the very severe conclusion which was hard to face up to. in order to prevent the slow but sure dissipation of “royal Hungary” they were forced to do something. And since they had no other chance, they were reduced to take the step which was tantamount to the renunciation of the earlier generations’ and their own political credo. Consequently, in their opinion, they were obliged to offer cooperation with the Porte, even if it entailed the degradation of the remains of the country to the status of a vassal state. Obviously, such a step – the ultima ratio – if it were to come about, would entail (would have entailed) serious consequences for the foreign, West European attitude toward the country, the Kingdom of Hungary. In this situation the intention or plan of the malcontens Hungarian lords had to incorporate some response to the prospective and understandable antipathy – and to the intrigues of the Viennese court. They would have to issue manifestos, statements with convincing arguments and forward them to West European towns and courts, first of all to Rome, to the decision-makers of the papal curia from where the greatest influence on public opinion could be expected. The essential message of these manifestos, which are not known among completed documents but survive in fragments in diverse aristocratic archives, was a firm and irrevocable determina tion: the vow and pledge that the population would keep their faith, their religion during vassalage as well and – in this sense – would continue to be the stronghold of respublica christiana, the Christian community. The promotion and stressing of this pledge as well as the demonstration of a peculiar interpretation of the past with the tools of visual art was the original and basic function of the unsigned engraving from the second half of the 1660s discussed in detail in the paper. Oddly enough, it was made at a time – without notable, well known iconographic antecedents – when the Kingdom of Hungary in her helpless situation was getting ever farther away from becoming (one of) the bulwark(s) or safeguard(s) of the Christian community. The client for whom the engraving was made must have been Count Ferenc (Franz) Nádasdy, the mastermind of the failed initiative and head of the anti-Habsburg conspiracy of the aristocracy – himself a sincere advocate and vigorous supporter of reviving Catholicism.

The historic military events of the last one and a half decades in the seventeenth century – the triumphant termination of the Ottoman wars in Hungary, the expulsion of the Turks – overruled the original meaning of the time-honoured adage known all over Europe, the idea that Hungary was one of the safeguards/bulwarks of the western Christian community. Although it might have lost its topicality, it did not fall out of public remembrance. It underwent some modification, some shift of tone, the militant slogan of mobilization giving way to reference to the heroic deeds of the forefathers, to the glorious past, the historical merits of the kingdom, of Hungaria. Added to this – by way of a conclusion – is the profound conviction rooted in historical experience that it was not in vain to persevere above their strength against the pagan world power in calamitous times. To the contrary, the nation owed her well-nigh miraculous survival to it. After all, the fact that her disintegration and perdition could be avoided must have been by the will of divine providence. This idea is conveyed in a visual language by an extremely effective composition, an engraving made in Augsburg in the first decade of the eighteenth century undoubtedly upon a Hungarian commission. What were the Abbot of Pannonhalma P. Aegidius Karner’s ideas or intentions to have this engraving made? In the closing section of the paper an attempt is made to answer this question.

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Clipeus Christianitatis. Egy nagymúltú európai szállóige képi megjelenítésének változatai Magyarországon a 17. század második felében és a 18. század elején

Clipeus Christianitatis variants of the visualization of a time-honoured european adage in Hungary in the second part of the 17th and early 19th centuries

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
András Szilágyi

The news of the peace of Westphalia in the autumn of 1648 certainly elicited great sighs of relief all over Europe, though contentedness was not yet universal. In countries over which the menace of the expansion and further advance of the Ottoman Empire loomed larger, the news generated a period of great hopes. This applied first of all to Hungary and Croatia where an optimistic public feeling began to spread wide. The main sources of this optimism were the influential politicians and their statements, who were both mouthpieces and shapers of the general attitude. Who were convinced that after 30 years of warfare a period of regeneration ought to come, and sooner or later – not in the distant future – what they had been painfully missing for decades, exactly since the reign of Emperor rudolph (†1612, rudolph I as king of Hungary): a major concerted anti-Ottoman military undertaking would be launched, a comprehensive campaign with the participation and support by Europe’s Christian countries initiated and controlled by the ruler of the Holy roman Empire and also king of Hungary ferdinand III. As the contemporary utterance of the politicizing Hungarian estates reveal, this optimistic expectation was paired with a zealous manifestation of a readiness to act. They voiced their great resolve with which the eligible population would take part and fight as effectively as their reserves allowed against the porte. This uncompromising intrepidity, the fight against the Ottomans at any price was fed – in addition to many glorious examples in the past – by several contemporary events. Clashes with great casualties which made great stirs in the Hungarian and European public life. Contemporaries hailed the fallen, including those of the ill-starred military encounter at vezekény on 26 August 1652, as inflaming examples of perseverance. In the eye of the contemporaries those killed in the clash – including four members of the aristocratic Esterházy family – set an inspiring example of moral courage in the teeth of Turkish superiority in numbers: in a hopeless battle they chose perseverance to the end, that is, heroic self-sacrifice, instead of surrendering. In addition to numerous quondam utterances including some quality works of literature testifying to the intrepidity and fighting value of the Hungarian estates, two works of the applied arts were also created with the aim of perpetuating the glorious memory of the fallen heroes.

The historic military events of the last one and a half decades in the 17th century – the triumphant termination of the Ottoman wars in Hungary, the expulsion of the Turks – overruled the original meaning of the time-honoured adage known all over Europe, the idea that Hungary was one of the safeguards/bulwarks of the western Christian community. Although it might have lost its topicality, it did not fall out of public remembrance. It underwent some modification, some shift of tone, the militant slogan of mobilization giving way to reference to the heroic deeds of the forefathers, to the glorious past, the historical merits of the kingdom, of Hungaria. Added to this – by way of a conclusion – is the profound conviction rooted in historical experience that it was not in vain to persevere above their strength against the pagan world power in calamitous times. To the contrary, the nation owed her well-nigh miraculous survival to it. After all, the fact that her disintegration and perdition could be avoided must have been by the will of divine providence. This idea is conveyed in a visual language by an extremely effective composition, an engraving made in Augsburg in the first decade of the 18th century undoubtedly upon a Hungarian commission. What were the Archabbot of pannonhalma p. Aegidius Karner’s ideas or intentions to have this engraving made? In the closing section of the paper an attempt is made to answer this question.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
András Bersényi
,
Erzsébet Berta
,
István Kádár
,
Róbert Glávits
,
Mihály Szilágyi
, and
Sándor Fekete

To study the effects of high dietary molybdenum (Mo) content, rabbits were fed with commercial pellets and carrots containing 39 mg Mo/kg dry matter (DM) [Experiment 1] and with a commercial diet supplemented with 40 mg Mo/kg DM [Experiment 2] for 14 days. The high dietary Mo contents failed to reduce the growth performance of rabbits. Moreover, supplemental Mo given in a dose of 40 mg/kg non-significantly decreased the apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP) and crude fibre (CF) compared to the control (73.63 ± 2.49 and 18.56 ± 5.10 vs. 74.31 ± 3.03 and 21.38 ± 6.48, respectively). Molybdenum ingested with feeds was mainly excreted (57%) via the urine. The highest Mo levels were found in kidney and liver samples (3.464 ± 0.872; 5.27 ± 0.95 mg/kg DM [Experiment 1] and 1.878 ± 0.283; 1.62 ± 0.16 mg/kg DM [Experiment 2], respectively), and Mo could also be detected in limb meat (0.336 ± 0.205 mg/kg DM). It was stated that the testes were more sensitive to Mo exposure than the female reproductive organs because the number of germ cells was reduced. Due to the high dietary Mo intake free radicals could be generated, resulting in a marked increase of creatine kinase (CK) activity.

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Antik Tanulmányok
Authors:
Mária Adorjáni
,
Katalin Goda
,
Laura Menta Szilágyi
,
Tamás Németh
,
András Teleki
, and
Erika Juhász
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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
Imre Szilágyi
,
István Sajó
,
Péter Király
,
Gábor Tárkányi
,
Attila Tóth
,
András Szabó
,
Katalin Varga-Josepovits
,
János Madarász
, and
György Pokol

Abstract  

This article discusses the formation and structure of ammonium tungsten bronzes, (NH4) x WO3−y . As analytical tools, TG/DTA-MS, XRD, SEM, Raman, XPS, and 1H-MAS NMR were used. The well-known α-hexagonal ammonium tungsten bronze (α-HATB, ICDD 42-0452) was thermally reduced and around 550 °C a hexagonal ammonium tungsten bronze formed, whose structure was similar to α-HATB, but the hexagonal channels were almost completely empty; thus, this phase was called reduced hexagonal (h-) WO3. In contrast with earlier considerations, it was found that the oxidation state of W atoms influenced at least as much the cell parameters of α-HATB and h-WO3, as the packing of the hexagonal channels. Between 600 and 650 °C reduced h-WO3 transformed into another ammonium tungsten bronze, whose structure was disputed in the literature. It was found that the structure of this phase—called β-HATB, (NH4)0.001WO2.79—was hexagonal.

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Central European Geology
Authors:
Ádám Bede
,
Roderick B. Salisbury
,
András István Csathó
,
Péter Czukor
,
Dávid Gergely Páll
,
Gábor Szilágyi
, and
Pál Sümegi

The Ecse-halom is a burial mound (kurgan) in the Hortobágy region of Hungary. Built in the Late Copper Age/Early Bronze Age by nomadic people from the east, it now stands on the border between two modern settlements. A road of medieval origin runs along this border and cuts deeply into the body of the mound. The southern half of the mound was plowed and used as a rice field, and later a military observation tower was built on top of it. Despite this disturbance, the surface of the mound is in decent condition and provides a home for regionally significant, species-rich loess steppe vegetation. The mound comprises two construction layers as indicated by magnetic susceptibility and thin-section micro-morphological analysis. Examination of organic compounds and carbonate content at various levels showed different values, which suggest a variety of natural and anthropogenic stratigraphic layers. Mid-sized siltstone fraction is dominant in the section. The layers originate from the immediate vicinity of the mound, but have different characteristics than present-day soils. These mounds contain a valuable record of cultural and environmental conditions occurring at the time of their construction, and also serve as a refuge for ancient loess vegetation; therefore their conservation is highly recommended.

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