Cities are responsible for about 30% of the energy consumed worldwide. Since 2007 more than 50% of the world population lives in cities, and urbanization is still growing. The energy-efficiency of cities is gaining greater importance today. The paper examines the possibilities of energy consumption reduction and optimization in cities. Various urban and architectural tools are described below that affect indirectly and directly the energy balance of cities. The possible ways of using renewable energy sources in cities have been analyzed. Ways and means of their use is analyzed in on-site, nearby and off-site systems.
In recent years, both legislative instruments and market demand drive the construction industry towards high-performing, low-energy consuming buildings. However, without considering the human dimension, technologies alone do not necessarily guarantee high performance in buildings. Occupant behavior is a leading factor influencing energy use in buildings. To investigate and quantify the human dimension in a building’s energy use, an international research study has been launched as part of project ANNEX66, organized by the International Energy Agency using an interdisciplinary framework. The framework is a synthesis of theories from building physics and social psychology including social cognitive theory, the theory of planned behavior, and the drivers-needs-actions-systems ontology for energy-related behaviors. As a research tool, an online survey was designed to collect cross-country responses from office occupants among 14 universities within 6 countries from 4 continents. This paper introduces results and findings of the Hungarian data collection campaign conducted among 207 occupants in 6 universities across the country.