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Migráns hátterű tanulók iskolai inklúziója a németországi iskolapedagógiai diskurzusban
School Inclusion of Migrant Students in the German Educational Discourse
A németországi (oktatás)politika és iskolapedagógia az „inklúzió” fogalmát – mind a társadalmi, mind az iskolai befogadást tekintve – sokáig a fogyatékkal élők befogadásának koncepciójaként értelmezte. A tágabb értelemben vett inklúzió – tehát az adott közösségben lévők sokszínűségének és különbözőségének elfogadását és megbecsülését jelentő értelmezés, amely a (társadalmi és iskolai) esélyegyenlőség biztosítására törekszik – csak viszonylag rövid idő óta dominálja az oktatáspolitikai és neveléstudományi diskurzust. Az inkluzív oktatásról szóló vita Németországban szorosan összefonódott a PISA-vizsgálattal kapcsolatos diskurzussal – főként ami a migráns hátterű tanulók iskolai eredményeit illeti. A nemzetközi összehasonlító PISA-vizsgálatok kimutatták, hogy Németországban főként a migráns hátterű tanulók (akik általában alacsonyabb társadalmi rétegekből származnak) teljesítményszintje nem éri el a kívánt szintet. (Többek között) ennek javítására került kidolgozásra az inkluzív iskola koncepciója, amely arra törekszik, hogy az iskola világát olyanná tegye, hogy az lehetőleg minden Németországban tanuló iskolás gyerek sajátos igényének megfeleljen, és így mindenki számára egyenlő oktatási esélyt biztosítson. Az iskolai inklúzió mára fontos vezérelvvé vált mind az oktatáspolitikai, mind a neveléstudományi diskurzusban, amelyet azonban az iskolai gyakorlatban (még) nem sikerült megvalósítani.
In most European countries, Roma people are traditionally less successful in education systems than the non-Roma population. Especially, Roma women have traditionally been less involved in schooling compared to men than they suffer from multiple deprivations: First, their different cultural/ethnic traditions often lead to discrimination in school education. Second, a large part of Roma live in poverty. Third, women also have disadvantages through the gender aspect, because the traditional Roma culture defines the place of women in the family and an educational career is not necessary for that. Despite these multiple deprivations, Roma women are increasingly successful in the education system. In modern societies, however, Roma women are present at school, although usually at the lowest, compulsory level. The lack of education is often the reason that they are only partly present in the labor market. Even if they have a job, they often receive the worst positions. Several countries, such as Hungary, also paid particular attention to education policy. With the emergence of resilience, disadvantaged young people started to be involved in education. The model of inclusive school helps them in schooling. The current HERJ issue discusses the situation of female Roma and Gypsy women in some European countries: Croatia, Poland, Norway, England, Germany, and Hungary. First, our aim is to describe their particular needs (possible), improving and impeding factors in educational systems and second to share experiences about developing education concepts, which could support the educational participation of Roma women and – as much as possible – also their success in the education system.
This article discusses the (mostly impeding) impact of the traditional female role model on the learning success of Roma and Gypsy women – based on two interview studies with Roma and Gypsy women in Hungary about their educational biography – with focus on the case of Marianne, a Hungarian Gypsy woman, who has come from a background of multiple deprivations but has managed a successful educational career (higher education graduation). Her educational biography can be seen as typical for Roma and Gypsy women in Hungary. She achieved her university degree at the age of 40 years – with delays and breaks – mostly in evening courses in addition to family and work. During her studies, she questioned the traditional female role model and experienced strong identity crises in her educational career because of the incompatible attitudes of the majority and minority culture. The departure from tight and constricting family relationships was very distressing. However, she also experienced the freedom to decide, could develop her talents, and took her life into her own hands, which altogether strengthened her self-esteem.
‘Education for all’ and widening access to education with the aim of creating more social equality are long-term goals of the European education policy. Although there was an education expansion in the last decades in most of European countries, educational attainment and achievement still reflect social inequalities: students with less advantaged socio-economic backgrounds are still significantly underrepresented in higher educational institutions and need supporting measures for educational success. Roma students in particular suffer from multiple deprivation: Firstly, because a large part of the Roma population lives in poverty. Secondly, because their different cultural traditions often lead to discrimination in school education. Roma women additionally suffer from social injustice and deprivation because of the gender aspect: the traditional Roma culture defines the place of women to be with the family at home and an educational career is not necessary for that. Mentoring programmes are considered as successful in helping disadvantaged pupils and students to achieve better results in education. A special form of mentoring programmes is often included as a part of teacher education with the goal of not only helping disadvantaged children but also preparing future teachers to cope with diversity in schools. This article introduces practical and conceptual issues regarding mentoring programmes for disadvantaged children focussing on two perspectives: on the impact on the mentees – disadvantaged children with special regard to Roma students, and on the effect on the mentors – students in teacher training.
The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) recently had its 30th anniversary. Emerging from the United Nations General Assembly in 1989, it has since become the most ratified international human rights treaty ever. Most European countries ratified it and are thus obliged to ensure the implementation of children's rights in practice. Operationalizing the UNCRC raises practical, conceptual and ethical issues. For example, questions arise concerning children and young people's competence to make autonomous decisions in different social domains, especially in education. There are also debates about children's involvement in dispute resolution and the extent to which rights must always be associated with redress in order to make them meaningful. Clearly, the relationship between the rights of children and young people on the one hand and those of parents and teachers on the other are particularly salient. In addition, challenges may arise in relation to children from the Roma-minority in educational institutions. Article 28 (1) of the UNCRC stresses that “States Parties recognize the right of the child to education, and with a view to achieving this right progressively and on the basis of equal opportunity”. Nonetheless, Roma students frequently experience multiple forms of discrimination in educational institutions which amplify their existing disadvantage. Across Europe, there have been different rates of progress in terms of incorporating aspects of the UNCRC into domestic law and put them into practice in schools and other education institutions, and in many cases Roma children have yet to experience the benefits of enhanced children's rights.