Authors:Andrea Klang, Sandra Högler, Nora Nedorost, Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang, Ákos Pákozdy, Bethan Lang and Herbert Weissenböck
Hippocampal necrosis and hippocampal sclerosis in cats is a neuropathological entity which is a major concern in feline epilepsy. The aim of our study was to identify associated pathologic brain lesions possibly serving as aetiological triggers in this condition. Therefore, the formalin-fixed and paraffin waxembedded brain tissue of 35 cats diagnosed with hippocampal necrosis or sclerosis was examined retrospectively. In 26 cats inflammatory infiltrates could be found in the hippocampus or adjacent brain regions. Fifteen out of these animals demonstrated mild to moderate infiltrations by lymphocytes and complement deposition in the hippocampus similar to human limbic encephalitis, seven showed unspecific, predominantly non-suppurative inflammation, and two demonstrated suppurative inflammation of the hippocampus or adjacent brain regions. Additionally, one cat was diagnosed with central nervous manifestation of feline infectious peritonitis virus and another one with cerebral Toxoplasma gondii infection. Intracranial neoplasia was present in five cases altogether. Three of them comprised meningioma which was present additionally to lesions resembling limbic encephalitis in two cases, and a dentate gyrus alteration in one case. The other two tumour-associated cases comprised oligodendroglioma. Structural alterations of the dentate gyrus together with hippocampal sclerosis were encountered in three cases in total. Besides the case associated with a meningioma, one case demonstrated lesions resembling limbic encephalitis. A vascular infarct in the temporal lobe was encountered in one cat. In four cases no lesions other than hippocampal necrosis or sclerosis were found. The involvement of feline immunodeficiency virus infections, which may be able to produce hippocampal lesions, was not encountered in the cats examined.
Authors:Bianca Schwarz, Andrea Klang, Barbora Bezdekova, Sára Sárdi, Orsolya Kutasi and Rene Hoven
Equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis (EMPF), a progressive fibrosing interstitial lung disease has been associated with gammaherpesviruses. This case series describes five horses with EMPF. Three of the horses (two in Hungary, one in the Czech Republic) were diagnosed with EMPF ante mortem. They presented with typical clinical signs of EMPF including dyspnoea and weight loss. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed hypoxaemia. Blood work showed signs of inflammation like neutrophilia and hyperfibrinogenaemia. An endoscopic examination of the respiratory tract including cytology and culture of tracheobronchial secretion and bronchoalveolar lavage were performed, revealing secondary bacterial infection in one case. A suspected diagnosis of EMPF was made on the basis of a positive EHV-5 PCR from bronchoalveolar lavage and the findings of thoracic radiographs and ultrasound examination. In one case the diagnosis was confirmed by lung biopsy. All horses died or had to be euthanised despite treatment. Two horses (from Austria) were diagnosed with EMPF post mortem. They not only had EMPF but also concurrent other diseases which seemed to be associated with immunosuppression. Three horses showed the discrete form and two horses the diffuse form of EMPF. EHV-5 DNA was identified in lung tissue of all horses by PCR.