In children, acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most frequently occurring infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Str. pyogenes. The standard treatment of AOMis provided by antibiotics; however, an increased resistance of the causative agents to antibiotics requires the need to search for innovations. This study was focused on in vitro testing sensitivity of streptococci isolated from AOM to enterocins produced by 9 different origin strains of E. faecium. Enterocins (Ent) represent ribosomally synthesized proteinaceous substances with antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and/or Gram-negative bacteria which are produced mostly by strains of the species Enterococcus faecium. Str. pneumoniae were sensitive at least to 1 Ent. Str. pneumoniae SPn 754 was sensitive to 5 Ent. Five Str. pyogenes were sensitive to enterocins. Ent A (P) inhibited the growth of 3 Str. pneumoniae, and 4 Str. pyogenes (activity between 100 and 3,200 AU/ml). Most of Ent inhibited the growth of streptococci tested (100–3,200 AU/ml). Str. pyogenes were more sensitive to Ent than Str. pneumoniae. Although more detailed further studies are required, our results indicate a new possibility for enterocin use.
Authors:Mikuláš Levkut, Juraj Pistl, Andrea Lauková, Viera Revajová, Robert Herich, Zuzana Ševčíková, Viola Strompfová, Renáta Szabóová and Tatiana Kokinčáková
The protective effect of
EF 55 against
serovar Enteritidis phage type 4 (SE PT4) was studied in 1-day-old chicks. The EF 55 strain (isolated and characterised by the authors earlier) was applied daily (1.10
CFU/0.2 ml PBS) for 7 days. Oral inoculation of the SE PT4 strain was performed on day 8 in a single dose of 5.10
CFU/0.2 ml PBS. The experiment lasted for 21 days. Samples were collected on day 1 of the experiment to verify the absence of
, on day 8 to check colonisation of EF 55 and immunological status in experimental birds, and on days 2, 4, 6, 8 and 14 after SE PT4 infection of chicks. Strain EF 55 sufficiently colonised the digestive tract of chicks after 7 days of application. The highest numbers of EF 55 in the faeces of chicks were observed before SE infection and persisted to day 6 post infection (p.i.) in both the EF and EF+SE groups. PCR confirmed the identity of the EF 55 strain. The counts of SE PT4 strain in faeces of the EF+SE group were significantly reduced in comparison to those in the SE group on days 2 and 14 p.i. (P < 0.01). The significant reduction of salmonellae in the caecum was recorded at the end of the experiment (day 14 p.i.) in the EF+SE group in comparison to the SE group (P < 0.01). At day 4 p.i., colonies of
. Enteritidis PT4 were found in the liver of chicks of the SE group in a higher concentration than in chicks of the EF+SE group (P < 0.001). Salmonellae were isolated from the liver until days 8 and 6 p.i. in the SE and EF+SE groups, respectively. The mean values of actual lymphocyte subpopulations in the blood and the relative percentage of caecal intraepithelial lymphocyte subpopulations (CD4, CD8, CD44, TCR, MHC II and IgM) were not influenced at a statistically significant level by the application of the EF 55 and/or the SE PT4 strain. The results demonstrate the antimicrobial effect of
EF 55 against
. Enteritidis PT4.
Authors:Iveta Placha, Lubica Chrastinova, Andrea Laukova, Klaudia Cobanova, Jana Takacova, Viola Strompfova, Maria Chrenkova, Zuzana Formelova and Stefan Faix
The effects of 0.5 g thyme oil per kg dry matter (DM) of diet on duodenal tissue integrity, antioxidant status, phagocytic activity and selected microbiota in the caecum and faeces of rabbits were studied. Twenty-four rabbits were divided into two groups and were fed a commercial granulated diet for growing rabbits (CD) with access to water ad libitum. The first group was fed the CD, while to the CD of the second group thyme oil was added. Intestinal integrity was tested by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Thyme oil significantly increased the value of total antioxidant status (TAS) in the blood plasma and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the liver, and it decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in the duodenal tissue. Thyme oil resulted in strengthened intestinal integrity, as the essential oil supplementation significantly increased TEER values in the experiment. The faecal microbiota of rabbits was almost completely balanced in both groups, and only a slight decrease was found in the microbial population at day 42 of the trial. In both groups, the bacterial counts were generally lower in the caecum than in the faecal samples. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 0.5 g/kg DM thyme oil may improve intestinal integrity, and it may have an antioxidant effect. A tendency was also found for thyme oil to stimulate the abundance of some microbes beneficial in the rabbit gut.