The goal of our review was to gather information on the most important community-acquired and hospital-acquired co-infections among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, and to examine not only the effect of these co-infections on disease outcomes but also to identify the possible risk factors that predispose COVID-19 patients to co-infections.
Medline (PubMed) and Google Scholar were searched for relevant articles published between January 1st, 2020, and September 31st, 2021, on the topic of co-infections among COVID-19 patients.
Among community-acquired and hospital-acquired co-infections, bacterial and fungal co-infections are equally frequent, followed by viral co-infections that affected a relatively smaller portion of patients. Overall, co-infections were more frequent in the hospital than at the community level. Risk factors for acquiring co-infections include male gender, longer length of hospital stay, presence of supportive treatment, such as ventilation, the admission to intensive care units, the administration of medications, such as steroids or antibiotics, and certain blood parameters, such as high C-reactive protein or lymphopenia. The presence of co-infections could aggravate the COVID-19 disease severity, prolong the healing time of patients, and lead to worse disease outcomes overall.
Co-infections may increase the mortality of COVID-19 patients, especially in the hospital setting. Paying closer attention to hygiene, adhering to diagnostic and therapeutic protocols, implementing antimicrobial stewardship programs could decrease the occurrence of co-infections and lead to improved outcomes for COVID-19 patients.
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are a vulnerable group in terms of the outcome of coronavirus infection in relation to their disease or its treatment, with a higher risk of developing serious complications compared to the healthy population.
The aim of our summary study is to review the background and health outcomes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and COVID-19 infection in the presence of both diseases.
Review of national and international medical databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, and MOB) with keywords COPD, COVID-19, disease risk, cause, prevention, complications, and prognosis.
Meta-analyses show that COPD is one of the most common underlying conditions in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Such patients are five times more likely to develop a serious complication due to oxygen supply problems therefore they are more likely to be admitted to intensive care units, where they may require mechanical ventilation. In the case of underlying COPD, the usual care plan for COVID-19 infection should be followed, as well as all public health recommendations to minimize the risk of developing and transmitting COVID-19.
Coronavirus infection is especially dangerous for COPD patients, who are much more likely to become seriously ill, so increased surveillance, prevention, early detection, adequate treatment and rehabilitation of the disease group are of paramount importance.
The purpose of current review is to conduct a systematic overview of articles published between 2019 and 2021 on the relationship of comorbidities and mortality due to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) among the elderly population.
We conducted a systematic search on PubMed for articles published between 2019 and 2021 to identify any cohort and case-control studies that investigated the relationship of comorbidities and COVID-19 mortality among the elderly, defined as 60 years of age and above. Databases were searched independently by two authors. Disagreements were resolved by the inclusion of a third investigator. Reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses were excluded from our systematic review.
A total of 15 studies were selected for our systematic review. Of the included studies, 3 were case-control, 3 were prospective cohort studies and 9 were retrospective cohort studies. As for size, 10 studies were conducted on populations of <1000 participants, 3 ranging from 1001 to 10,000, and 2 on populations of >10,000 individuals. The included studies found that the presence of certain conditions, such as cardiovascular, respiratory, renal diseases, malignancies, diseases of the nervous system and diabetes are associated to increased mortality in populations that consisted of elderly patients.
Results of our systematic review suggest that comorbidities contribute to increased COVID-19 mortality among the elderly. The detrimental effect of comorbidities and advanced age on the immune response could lead to a more frequent occurrence of symptomatic and severe infections with COVID-19.
Decreased physical activity significantly increases the probability of prevalent metabolic syndrome (MetS) with substantial impact on the expected course of COPD.
Our research aims to assess the metabolic consequences of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and evaluate the prevalence of MetS and its interrelations with age, sex, comorbidities, drug intake, degree of decreased lung function, nutritional status, physical activity and quality of life.
A cross-sectional study was performed on a random sample (n = 401) at the Department of Pulmonary Rehabilitation of the National Koranyi Institute of Pulmonology from March 1, 2019 to March 1, 2020 in Budapest, Hungary. Anthropometric and respiratory function tests and laboratory parameters of all patients were registered.
MetS occurred in 59.1% of COPD patients with significant gender difference (male: 49.7% female: 67.6%). Concerning BMI, the prevalence of MetS was higher with BMI≥25 kg m−2 (P < 0.0001). Patients with this syndrome had significantly worse FEV1%pred (43 (30–56) vs. 47 (36–61); P = 0.028), lower quality of life (CAT: 26 (21–32) vs. 24.5 (19–29); P = 0.049) and significantly more frequent exacerbations (2 (1–3) vs.1 (0–2); P < 0.05), than patients without MetS. The prevalence of comorbidities were higher in overweight/obese patients (BMI> 25 kg m−2).
In COPD patients MetS negatively affect respiratory function and quality of life and promotes exacerbations of the disease. MetS is related to nutritional status and the level of systemic inflammation in COPD patients.