Authors:A. Palágyi, Andrea Palágyi, and K. Móroczné Salamon
Green fodder mixture trials were carried out with GK Impala, a winter hardy, fall sown oat variety registered in 2005 intercropped either with winter vetch or winter pea in a crop year when the spring was dry (2003) and in another one (2004) when the precipitation was optimal in spring. The two components of mixtures were sown 50% each. A four-replicate randomised complete block design was used with 50 m2 plots. The results were compared to the mixtures of spring oats and vetch; and spring oats and pea, respectively. The green matter of fall sown crops was cut by scythe late May, whereas that of spring crops early June.Data demonstrate that the green forage yield and protein production of fall sown oats as a monocrop and intercropped with vetch was higher than those of spring types. Green matter and dry matter yield varied with season, and were more advantageous in the year 2004, when there was more precipitation. The crude protein content of winter vetch and the crude protein production of the mixture fall sown oats + winter vetch were the highest. The mixtures with winter or spring pea yielded less green matter and, as a matter of fact, less crude protein. The fodder mixtures cereals — legumes are conventionally and widely used as feed for livestock in North-America, and the results of our two-year experiment suggest that their use should be intensified in Hungary as well, mainly in the provisional feeding of ruminants. To date, oat varieties with reliable winter hardiness are offered for fall sowing.
Authors:Nikolett Baranyi, Daniela Jakšić Despot, Andrea Palágyi, Noémi Kiss, Sándor Kocsubé, András Szekeres, Anita Kecskeméti, Ottó Bencsik, Csaba Vágvölgyi, Maja Šegvić Klarić, and János Varga
The occurrence of potential aflatoxin producing fungi was examined in various agricultural products and indoor air in Central European countries including Hungary, Serbia and Croatia. For species identification, both morphological and sequence based methods were applied. Aspergillus flavus was detected in several samples including maize, cheese, nuts, spices and indoor air, and several isolates were able to produce aflatoxins. Besides, three other species of Aspergillus section Flavi, A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus were also isolated from cheese, maize and indoor air, respectively. This is the first report on the occurrence of A. nomius and A. pseudonomius in Central Europe. All A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus isolates were able to produce aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2. The A. nomius isolate came from cheese produced very high amounts of aflatoxins (above 1 mg ml–1). All A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus isolates produced much higher amounts of aflatoxin G1 then aflatoxin B1. Further studies are in progress to examine the occurrence of producers of these highly carcinogenic mycotoxins in agricultural products and indoor air in Central Europe.