The article reveals the logical and historical grounds of Grzegorz W. Kolodko’s approach to the interpretation of the phenomenon of China building socialism with Chinese characteristics and developing capitalist relations. Reality goes beyond the dilemma of “socialism or capitalism” and represents something third, having an independent meaning. It is shown that the starting point for the emergence of society and man is a jointly-divided labour whose two sides (jointness and separation) while historically evolving, are embodied on the side of separation in the market economy and capitalism, and on the side of jointness in the state and socialism. On this basis, there arises a confrontation between two opposing systems: capitalism and socialism. The subsequent historical progress turns capitalisation and socialisation into two complementary processes of the development of society, which are no longer adequate to describe in terms of the two systems. A certain third entity emerges. This proves that “Tertium Datur” by Grzegorz W. Kolodko has not only practical importance, but also deep logical and historical grounds.