Due to its difficult diagnosis and complicated treatment, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in dogs is a challenge for the veterinarian. Several aspects connected with pathological changes during IBD still remain unknown. Since one of these aspects is the participation of intestinal innervation in the evolution of the disease, the aim of this study was to demonstrate changes in the number and distribution of intramucosal colonic nerve fibres immunoreactive to substance P (SP) arising as the disease progresses. SP is one of the most important neuronal factors in intestinal innervation which, among other tasks, takes part in the conduction of pain stimuli. Using routine immunofluorescence technique, the density of nerve fibres containing SP was evaluated within mucosal biopsy specimens collected from the descending colon of healthy dogs and animals suffering from IBD of varying severity. The results of the study indicate that during severe IBD the number of nerve fibres containing SP located in the colonic mucosal layer increases in comparison to control animals. The number of SP-positive intramucosal nerves amounted to 10.99 ± 2.11 nerves per observation field in healthy dogs, 14.62 ± 2.86 in dogs with mild IBD, 14.80 ± 0.91 in dogs with moderate IBD and 19.03 ± 6.11 in animals with severe IBD. The observed changes were directly proportional to the intensity of the disease process. These observations may suggest a role of this neuronal substance in pathological processes occurring during IBD. Although the exact mechanism of the observed changes has not been completely explained, the results obtained in this investigation may contribute to improving the diagnosis and treatment of this disease, as well as the staging of canine IBD in veterinary practice.
Authors:Andrzej Rychlik, Renata Nieradka, Małgorzata Kander, Marcin Nowicki, Michał Wdowiak and Anna Kołodziejska-Sawerska
The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of immunomodulators in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in dogs. Twenty-eight dogs diagnosed with IBD took part in the study. The animals received a food containing extruded immunomodulators: β-1,3/1,6-D-glucan, β-hydroxy-β-methyl-butyrate (HMB) and levamisole for 42 days. Whole blood samples were analysed before and after therapy assessing changes in phagocyte activity (respiratory burst activity, RBA and potential killing activity, PKA), evaluation of proliferation response of mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes and serum gamma globulin levels, lysozyme activity, ceruloplasmin levels and interleukin activity (IL-6 and IL-10). In this experiment, β-1,3/1,6-D-glucan delivered the highest level of treatment efficacy by producing the quickest therapeutic effect, lowering Canine Inflammatory Bowel Disease Activity Index (CIBDAI) values to below 3, improving histopathological parameters, decreasing IL-6 levels, increasing IL-10 concentrations, and producing remission periods longer than six months. HMB and levamisole were also effective in lowering CIBDAI scores, but the abatement of clinical symptoms was slower and less pronounced in comparison with β-1,3/1,6-D-glucan. The results indicate that β-1,3/1,6-D-glucan can be useful in the treatment of canine IBD.