Bacteria can enhance their survival by attaching to inanimate surfaces or tissues, and presenting as multicellular communities encased in a protective extracellular matrix called biofilm. There has been pronounced interest in assessing the relationship between the antibiotic resistant phenotype and biofilm-production in clinically-relevant pathogens. The aim of the present paper was to provide additional experimental results on the topic, testing the biofilm-forming capacity of Escherichia coli isolates using in vitro methods in the context of their antibiotic resistance in the form of a laboratory case study, in addition to provide a comprehensive review of the subject. In our case study, a total of two hundred and fifty (n = 250) E. coli isolates, originating from either clean-catch urine samples (n = 125) or invasive samples (n = 125) were included. The colony morphology of isolates were recorded after 24h, while antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Biofilm-formation of the isolates was assessed with the crystal violet tube-adherence method. Altogether 57 isolates (22.8%) isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), 89 isolates (35.6%) produced large colonies (>3 mm), mucoid variant colonies were produced in 131 cases (52.4%), and 108 (43.2%) were positive for biofilm formation. Biofilm-producers were less common among isolates resistant to third-generation cephalosporins and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (P = 0.043 and P = 0.023, respectively). Biofilms facilitate a protective growth strategy in bacteria, ensuring safety against environmental stressors, components of the immune system and noxious chemical agents. Being an integral part of bacterial physiology, biofilm-formation is interdependent with the expression of other virulence factors (especially adhesins) and quorum sensing signal molecules. More research is required to allow for the full understanding of the interplay between the MDR phenotype and biofilm-production, which will facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies.
Fluorides may affect the oxide layer on titanium surface. Caries preventive mouthwashes or gels contain fluorides and are applied at low pH. The aim of the present work was to study whether various concentrations of fluoride at acidic pH cause changes in the surface structure on the polished region of Ti implants, and alter the adherence and colonization of bacteria. Commercially pure Ti grade 4 discs with a polished surface were treated with a mouthwash containing 0.025% fluoride, a gel containing 1.25% fluoride or a 1% aqueous solution of NaF (pH 4.5). The change of surface roughness of the samples and the colonization of Porphyromonas gingivalis strains were studied by scanning electron microscopy after 5 days of anaerobic incubation. The quantity of the bacterial protein was determined by protein assay analysis. Agents with high fluoride concentration at acidic pH increased the roughness of the Ti surface. A slight increase in the amount of bacteria was found on the surfaces treated with 1% NaF and gel in comparison with the control surface. This study suggested that a high fluoride concentration at acidic pH may hinder the development of a healthy transgingival epithelial junction on Ti implants, due to bacterial colonization.
Implants have been considered the treatment of choice to replace missing teeth, unfortunately, peri-implant disease is still an unresolved issue. Contaminated implants may be decontaminated by physical debridement and chemical disinfectants; however, there is a lack of consensus regarding the ideal techniques/agents to be used for the decontamination. The objective of our study was to compare the decontaminating efficacy of different chemical agents on a titanium surface contaminated with Porphyromonas gingivalis, a typical representative of the bacterial flora associated with peri-implantitis. Commercially pure Ti grade 4 discs with a polished surface were treated with a mouthwash containing chlorhexidine digluconate (0.1%), povidone-iodine (PVP-iodine) solution (10%) or citric acid monohydrate (40%). Qualitative and quantitative assessment of cellular growth and survival were assessed by a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Significant differences in the quantity of P. gingivalis could be observed after 6 days of incubation. A numerical, but not statistically significant (P = 0.066) decrease in the amount of living bacteria was observed in the group treated with the PVP-iodine solution as compared to the control group. The chlorhexidine (CHX)-treated group presented with significantly higher cell counts, as compared to the PVP-iodine-treated group (P = 0.032), while this was not observed compared to the control group and citric acid-treated group. Our results have also been verified by SEM measurements. Our results suggest that for P. gingivalis contamination on a titanium surface in vitro, PVP-iodine is a superior decontaminant, compared to citric acid and chlorhexidine-digulconate solution.