Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for

  • Author or Editor: Anna Karlsson x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Background and aims

Gambling disorder (GD) appears to be an independent risk factor for suicide, and all-cause mortality has been sparsely studied in patients with GD. This study aims to explore mortality and suicide rates in individuals with GD compared to the general population as well as explore risk factors associated with all-cause mortality and suicide mortality.

Methods

This is a nationwide register study on 2,099 individuals with a GD diagnosis in the Swedish inpatient and/or outpatient specialist health care system between the years of 2005–2016. Comorbid diagnoses from treatment episodes included in national registers were categorized into diagnostic groups according to the 10th revision of International Classification of Diseases, and prevalence rates (any occurrence during 2005–2016) were calculated for each diagnostic group. Multivariate Cox regression analyses on risk factors for death and suicide were performed, controlling for age, gender, and major categories of comorbidity. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for men and women with regard to overall mortality and suicide compared to the general Swedish population.

Results

The population consisted of 1,625 men and 474 women ranging from 18 to 83 years of age at first GD diagnosis (mean: 36.5 years). Sixty-seven individuals passed away, among whom 21 deaths were due to suicide. SMR calculations showed a 1.8-fold increase in mortality for individuals 20–74 years old with GD compared to the general population, and a 15-fold increase in suicide mortality. All-cause mortality was predicted by higher age and any treatment episode for cardiovascular disease, whereas suicide death was predicted by depression.

Discussion and conclusions

Mortality and suicide rates are significantly elevated among individuals with GD. Although common mental health comorbidities did not predict overall mortality, depression predicted suicide death. Findings call for attention to long-term risk of death in GD patients and interventions against comorbid health problems.

Open access

Abstract

Background

Gambling disorder is associated with increased suicidality, especially in women who also are more likely to have psychiatric comorbid disorders and more often have experiences of traumatic life events. Although suicidality is increased and several risk factors have been identified, knowledge of the suicidal process is lacking, especially for women.

Aim

To explore the lived experiences of suicidality in women with gambling disorder and to investigate potential factors involved in the development of suicidality.

Method

Semi-structured interviews were held with seven women with experiences of gambling disorder and suicidality in Malmö, Sweden between November 2021 and June 2022, when saturation was reached. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded in NVivo. Qualitative content analysis was used to build categories and themes.

Results

Several women had experienced suicidality before developing gambling disorder and gambling-related suicidality. However, for some, suicidality had appeared seemingly only due to the gambling disorder. Suicidality ranged from ideation to severe suicide attempts. Three themes of factors modulating suicidality related to gambling were found; a) guilt shame and self-stigmatization, b) loss of control/chaotic life circumstances, and c) social consequences/fear of guilt and shame from others.

Conclusion

More research on the experience of suicidality in women with gambling disorder is needed. Attempts to address self-stigmatization, guilt, and shame in women with gambling disorder and society at large as well as aiding women to regain a sense of control over their economy and gambling may be ways to reduce suicidality.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Marianne Balem
,
Anna Karlsson
,
Carolina Widinghoff
,
Bastien Perrot
,
Gaëlle Challet-Bouju
, and
Anders Håkansson

Abstract

Background and aims

The lockdown of sports and gambling venues during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused a fear of increased gambling on other online gambling types, with a risk for transfer to more addictive gambling than otherwise. This study aimed to estimate changes in gambling activity during COVID-19-affected periods among all gamblers at a Swedish state-owned gambling operator and to analyse observable sex differences.

Methods

This study included gambling tracking data from the Swedish state-owned gambling operator Svenska Spel Sports & Casino (sports betting, online bingo, casino and poker). All individuals (n = 616,245) who gambled at least once from February 10 to July 19, 2020, were included. The study period was divided into four periods according to their expected level of COVID-19 impact on gambling opportunities: one pre-COVID period and three COVID-affected periods (sports cancellation, emerging return of sports, substantial return of sports).

Results

Sports betting experienced an apparent decrease, followed by a gradual normalization and an end level substantially below prepandemic levels. For online bingo, gambling levels increased upon sports interruption and then decreased with the return to normality in sports events but remained higher than baseline levels. We observed a similar trend for online poker during the interruption of sports, but with a lower level than baseline levels when sports events normalized. We noticed a trend favouring online casinos during the sports interruption period regarding gambling intensity but not wagering levels.

Discussion and conclusions

Dramatic changes in the content of the gambling market may divert some gamblers to other gambling types, but maintained effects could not be demonstrated.

Open access