Authors:Aranka Deér, Mária Henczová, L. Banka, Zs. Varanka, and J. Nemcsók
The effects of crude oil (Szeged-Algyő, Hungary) and oil fractions (F1: rich in aromatics; F2 fraction: free from aromatics) were investigated on liver CYP1A isoenzymes and antioxidant defence system following their i.p. injection into different freshwater fish species: carp (
L.), silver carp (
V.), and European eel (
). A dose of 2 mL kg
crude oil enhanced EROD activity 8-fold in carp and only 5-fold in eel after 3 days. Oil fraction F1 caused only a 2-fold induction in EROD activity only in carp, while F2 fraction caused significant inhibition in all three investigated fish species. The antioxidant parameters [lipid peroxidation (LP), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione (GSH)] were measured following the treatment. A decrease of 50% in CAT activity was observed after oil treatment. The GSH level enhanced, resulting the protective effects against LP. The same dose of crude oil but a longer duration time resulted in lower CYP1A induction in carp and antioxidant parameters had returned close to control. In all treatments the EROD isoenzymes proved to be more sensitive and the effects of oil treatment showed species to be different. Carp proved to be more sensitive than eel or silver carp.
Authors:K. Ali, Ágnes Ferencz, Aranka Deér, J. Nemcsók, and Edit Hermesz
The expression pattern of two metallothionein (MT) genes in response to temperature shock and exposure to Cd
was investigated in the brain of common carp (
), in whole-animal experiments. The changes in the levels of MT-1 and MT-2 mRNA in the olfactory lobe, midbrain and cerebellum were followed by semiquantitative RT-PCR. The inducibility of the two MT genes was brain regionand stressor-specific. Cd
affected mostly the expression of MT-2, while the level of the MT-1 transcript did not change significantly in any of the brain regions examined. Moreover, the MT-2 expression was regulated spatially; MT-2 was induced significantly more strongly in the olfactory lobe than in the cerebellum or midbrain. A sudden temperature drop mainly affected the expression of the MT-1 gene; after 5 h of cold shock, the MT-1 mRNA level was about 25% of the basal value in the cerebellum and the midbrain region. The MT-2 expression did not change significantly during this treatment.
Authors:Ágnes Ferencz, Renáta Juhász, Monica Butnariu, Aranka Deér, Ilona Varga, and J. Nemcsók
Heat shock proteins are chaperones that play a pivotal role in controling multiple regulatory pathways such as stress defense, hormone signaling, cell cycle control, cell proliferation and differentiation, and apoptosis. In this study, the expression patterns of four well-known heat shock genes (hsp70, hsc70-1, hsc70-2 and hsp90α) were characterized in the skin, spleen and blood cells of the common carp, under unstressed conditions and after Cd2+ treatment or hypothermia. The examined genes were expressed in a tissue-specific manner: hsc70-2 was expressed constitutively, and was at best only slightly inducible; hsp90α exhibited a high basic expression in all three tissues, whereas hsc70-1 did so only in the blood cells, the expression of hsp70 proved to be below the level of detection in unstressed fish. Cold shock induced the expression of hsp genes in the spleen (hsp90α) and blood cells (hsp70, hsc70-1 and hsp90α), while Cd2+ treatment has no effect on the expression pattern. The highest inducibilities were detected in the skin: for hsp70 an induction of at least 20-fold after cadmium exposure, for hsc70-1 of at least 30-fold and for hsp90α of 3-fold after hypothermia.
Authors:Zs. Varanka, K. Aranka Deér, I. Rojik, I. Varanka, Kinga László, T. Bartók, J. Nemcsók, and Magdolna Ábrahám
Humics and pesticides are present in aquatic environment and the toxicological consequences of their chemical interaction is well studied. However, data concerning the mechanism of the biochemical action of humic-pesticide combinations are scarce, especially in vertebrates. Thus we have chosen to study the in vivo effects of the plant polyphenolic tannic acid and the pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin [Decis] alone or in combination on hepatic xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme activities and the associated redox-parameters in carp, as the complex assessment of these systems are regarded to serve as a relevant biomarker of environmental pollution. Stress effects and tissue damage were followed by determination of the plasma glucose level, the activities of plasma transaminases, and by electron microscopy. Tannic acid alone exerted weak prooxidant effect due to its marked antioxidant enzyme inhibitory activity. Deltamethrin, applied in a very low dose, induced oxyradical production in fish via activation of cytochrome P450 isozymes. This effect was promoted by the antioxidant enzyme inhibitory action of tannic acid, when the two chemicals were combined; however, the ultrastructural damage of the hepatocytes was reduced by the common cytoprotective capacity of the phenolic. Numerous humics are known to alter the toxicity of pesticides and their influence depends on their type and concentration. Therefore, our work taken together with other comparative studies may contribute to the assessment of the impact of humics in nature, especially in case of environmental pollution.