In this paper we analyze the (historical) co-evolution of technological development and economic progress (by relating public
and private R&D investment, patenting, and corporate profitability). We relate to the work ofSchmookler(1966),Griliches(1990),Pakes&Griliches(1980)
andPakes(1986) who all have studied the techno-economic interplay by considering patents as in indicator of technological
performance. We use United States industry and government data over the period 1953-1998 (45 years). Co-evolution analysis
over this period reveals a strong interdependency among the variables. Patent evolution is strongly related to the development
of private R&D and corporate profitability; the levels of public and private R&D expenditure in combination with the level
of technological output (i.e. patents) have a strong predictive and explanatory power towards corporate profitability (R2 value of 94.9%). Causality tests reveal a joint determination between R&D investment and corporate profitability (L=2; p<0.01).
Authors:Arnold Verbeek, Koenraad Debackere, and Marc Luwel
The interplay and cross-fertilization between science and technology, but also the specific role of science for technological development, have received ample attention in both the research and the policy communities. It is in this context that the concepts of absorptive capacity and knowledge spillovers play an important role. We operationalize the science-technology link by quantifying and modeling bibliographic references to the scientific literature as they occur in patents. This approach allows exploring the associative patterns between science creation (as emerging from the scientific literature) and technology development (as emerging from the patent literature). In the current paper, we focus on an analysis of the geographic distribution of the science citation patterns in patents, singling out two fields of (different) technological development, namely biotechnology and information technology. In both fields, the science citation flows from the European, Japanese and US science bases into USPTO and EPO-patents are explored and modeled. Intensive geographic citation flows between the regions are identified, pointing (amongst others) to the strength of both the US and the European science bases as sources for technological activity and creativity around the world.
Authors:Julie Callaert, Bart Van Looy, Arnold Verbeek, Koenraad Debackere, and Bart Thijs
The recent developments towards more systemic conceptualizations of innovation dynamics
and related policies highlight the need for indicators that mirror the dynamics involved. In this
contribution, we assess the role that 'non-patent references', found in patent documents, can play
in this respect. After examining the occurrence of these references in the USPTO and EPO patent
systems, their precise nature is delineated by means of a content analysis of two samples of nonpatent
references (n=10,000). Our findings reveal that citations in patents allow developing nontrivial
and robust indicators. The majority of all non-patent references are journal references,
which provide ample possibilities for large-scale analyses focusing on the extent to which
technological developments are situated within the vicinity of scientific knowledge. Application
areas, limitations and directions for future research are discussed.
Authors:Bart Looy, Edwin Zimmermann, Reinhilde Veugelers, Arnold Verbeek, Johanna Mello, and Koenraad Debackere
We investigate the relationship between the science intensity of technology domains and country's performance within these
domains. The number of references in patents to scientific articles is considered as an approximation of the science intensity
of a technology domain whereas a country's technological performance is measured in terms of its technological productivity
(i.e. number of patents per capita). We use USPTO patent-data for eight European countries in ten technological domains. A
variance analysis (ANOVA) is applied. Country as an independent variable does not explain a significant portion of the observed
variance in science intensity (p=0.25). Technology domain, however, explains a significant portion of the observed variance
(p<0.001). Moreover, in science intensive fields we find a positive relation between the science linkage intensity of these
fields and the technological productivity of the respective countries involved. These findings seem to suggest the relevancy
of designing innovation policies, aimed at fostering interaction between knowledge generating actors and technology producers,
in a field specific manner.