1,2,4-triazole-3-one (TO) and guanidine nitrate (GN) have the potential to be used as alternative gas-generating agents. To
obtain a better understanding of thermal decomposition properties of TO/GN mixtures, sealed cell differential scanning calorimetry,
thermogravimetry–differential thermal analysis–infrared spectroscopy (TG–DTA–IR), and thermogravimetry–differential thermal
analysis–mass spectrometry (TG–DTA–MS) were carried out. The endothermic peak and onset temperatures of TO/GN mixtures were
lower than those of individual TO and GN. TG–DTA–IR and TG–DTA–MS showed that the mass of TO/GN mixtures decreased with heat
generation and N2 evolved as the major gas during thermal decomposition. The interaction between TO and nitric acid from the dissociation of
GN is proposed for the thermal decomposition of TO/GN mixtures.
In order to obtain a better understanding of thermal substituent effects in 1,2,4-triazole-3-one (TO), the thermal behavior
of 1,2,4-triazole, TO, as well as urazole and the decomposition mechanism of TO were investigated. Thermal substituent effects
were considered using thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis, sealed cell differential scanning calorimetry, and molecular
orbital calculations. The onset temperature of 1,2,4-triazole was higher than that of TO and urazole. Analyses of evolved
decomposition gases were carried out using thermogravimetry–infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetry–mass spectrometry.
The gases evolved from TO were determined as HNCO, HCN, N2, NH3, CO2, and N2O.
In order to obtain a better understanding of the pyrolysis mechanism of urazole, molecular orbital (MO) calculations and evolved
gas analysis were carried out. The MO calculations were performed using the density functional method (B3LYP) at the 6-311++G(d,p)
levels by Gaussian 03. The geometrical structure of urazole and its tautomers were examined theoretically. Identification
and real-time analysis of the gases evolved from urazole were carried out with thermogravimetry-infrared spectroscopy (TG-IR)
and thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry (TG-MS). The evolved gases were identified as HNCO, N2, NH3, CO2, and N2O at 400 °C, but were different at other temperatures.
The thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) is considered to be the first step in the combustion of AP-based composite
propellants. In this report, the effect of the specific surface area of titanium oxide (TiO2) catalysts on the thermal decomposition characteristics of AP was examined with a series of thermal analysis experiments.
It was clear that the thermal decomposition temperature of AP decreased when the specific surface area of TiO2 increased. It was also possible that TiO2 influences the frequency factor of AP decomposition because there was no observable effect on the activation energy.
The reuse and recycling of biomass materials can minimize the environmental impact of society, and can help create a sustainable community. Although cellulosic biomass from demolished buildings is a promising resource for recycling, contaminants, such as wood preservatives that likely contain metal oxides, are found in recycled wood dust. These oxides could act as catalysts for the oxidation of organic materials, resulting in spontaneous ignition of large piles of recycled wood dust. Copper(II) oxide (CuO) is major component in wood preservative and plays a catalytic role in the oxidation of cellulose, which could cause spontaneous ignition. The present study focused on the influence of CuO on oxidation of cellulose. The exothermal behavior and mass loss of cellulose/CuO mixtures were investigated. Changes in exothermal behavior and mass loss with an increasing amount of CuO were measured by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. In addition, kinetics and spectroanalysis were conducted to determine the catalytic effect of CuO on oxidation of cellulose and help determine the oxidation model of cellulose upon addition of CuO. Results revealed a change in exothermal behavior and increase in mass loss with increasing amounts of CuO. In addition, CuO had a catalytic effect on the oxidation of cellulose, which helped determine the oxidation model of cellulose upon addition of CuO.
On January 21, 2003, an explosion occurred while ion exchange resin (IER) was being used to separate impurities from uranium
solution. To clarify the cause of the accident and go/no-go criteria of the explosion, elemental analysis of the IER, DSC
analysis, and SIKAREX analysis (a screening tool for runaway reactions) were performed. Finally, experiments on the same scale
as the accident were conducted in an explosion chamber. When HClO4 was added to IER-NO3, the IER violently exploded without any heating nor metal ions such as uranium. It was confirmed that the accident was caused
by an incorrect procedure in the chemical process. From the standpoint of explosion safety, IER-NO3 in particular should be kept away from perchloric acid in the laboratory.